Tagged ‘paste’

A little more french bisket

October 13th, 2013 by KM Wall

Are these more biskets or are these more french?

La Varrene

La Varrene – The (original) French Chef!

La Varenne  brought his cookbook out in 1651. By 1653 it had been ‘Englished”  and was for sale in London.

He also has a recipe for bisket. Two, in fact. If it’s in a French cookbook does that make it a French biscuit even if they don’t call it that?

How to make bisket.

Take eight eggs, one pound of sugar into powder, with three quarters of a pound of flowre. Mix all together and thus it will be neither too soft nor too hard.

- 1653. Francois Pierre La Varenne. Englished by L.D.G The French Cook.  intro by Philip and Mary Hyman. Southover Press: 2001. p.240.

These are more like the just plain bisket – or English bisket – then the french bisket. Notice how they don’t get boiled first. Note also that although La Varenne is considered THE man to talk about when talking about modernized (as opposed to medieval), codified French cuisine, there are still lovely vaguenesses as “thus it will be neither too soft nor too hard”. Maybe that’s just the translator talking.

The very last recipe in the book is another bisket.

How to make bisket of Savoy.

Take six yolks and eight whites [of] eggs, with one pound of sugar in powder, three quarters of a pound of good flower made of good wheat, and some aniseed, beaten all well together; and boile it. Make a paste neither too soft nor too hard, if it is too soft, you may mix with it some flowre of sugar for to harden it. When it is well proportioned , put it into moules of white tinne made for the purpose and then bake them half in the oven. When they are half baked, take them out, and moisten them at the top with the yolks of eggs ; after that, put them in the oven again for to make an end of baking. When they are so baked that they are not too much burned, nor too soft, take them out, and set them in a place which is neither too cool nor too dry.

1653. Francois Pierre La Varenne. Englished by L.D.G The French Cook.  intro by Philip and Mary Hyman. Southover Press: 2001. p. 246.

The little tin molds fascinate me, in part because it’s about 100 years earlier then I thought I’d ever see them. I should have been paying more attention to sweetmeats! The end-note of a place “neither too cool nor too dry”……is almost as good as “not too much burned, nor too soft”.

Savoy can be one of several things.

Savoy palace - drawing of 1650

Savoy palace – drawing of 1650

Savoy Record Company NOT the savoy of the 17th century bisket!

Savoy Record Company NOT the savoy of the 17th century bisket!



Arnotts Biscuit  - they carry a Savoy biscuit in the 20th century

Arnotts Biscuit – they carry a Savoy biscuit in the 20th century

The modern day Savoy biscuit is a cracker sold in parts of Australia. It’s by the same company that makes Tim-Tams. Among others.



There’s still Prince bisket and Italian bisket, and a more careful look at bisket bread ahead in the bisket trail.

Why did we change the spelling of bisket? Why don’t we change it back?





On the Culture, and Use of Maize Continues

October 7th, 2013 by KM Wall

Another post that’s very readies,( that is, there’s rather a lot to read)  but you’ll be coming back to dip in this pool again and again…..


Maize – the rubber band is so not 17th century….

The stalks of this corn, cut up before too much dried, and so laid up, are good winter-fodder for cattle. But they usually leave them on the ground for the cattle to feed on. The husks about the ear are good fodder, given for change sometimes after hay. The Indian women slit them into narrow parts, and so weave them artificially into baskets of several fashions. This corn the Indians dressed several ways for their food. Sometimes boiling it whole till it swelled and became tender, and so either eating it alone, or with their fish or venison instead of bread. Sometimes bruising in mortars, and so boiling it. But commonly this way, viz. by parching it in ashes, or embers, so artificially stirring it, as without burning, to be very tender, and turned almost inside outward, and also white and floury. This they sift very well from the ashes, and beat it in their wooden mortars, with a long stone for a pestle, into fine meal. This is a constant food at home, and especially when they travel, being put up in a bag, and so at all times ready for eating, either dry or mixed with water. They find it very wholesome diet, and is that their soldiers carry with them in time of war. The Indians have another sort of provision out of this corn, which they call sweet-corn. When the corn in the ear is full, while it is yet green, it has a very sweet taste. This they gather, boil, and then dry, and so put it up into bags or baskets, for their use: boiling it again, either whole or grossly beaten, when they eat it, either by itself, or among their fish or venison, or beavers, or other flesh, accounting it a principal dish, These green and sweet ears they sometimes roast before the fire or in the embers, and so eat the corn; by which means, they have sufficient supply of food, though their old store be done. The English, of the full ripe corn ground make very good bread. But it is not ordered as other corn; for if it be mixed into stiff paste, it will not be so good, as if made only a little stiffer than for puddings; and so baked in a very hot oven, standing therein all day or all night. Because on the first pouring of it on the oven floor, it spreads abroad; they pour a second layer or heap upon every first, and thereby make so many loaves. It is also sometimes mixed with half or a third part of rye or wheat meal, and so with leaven or yest made into loaves of very good bread.

Before they had mills, having first watered and husked the corn, and then beaten it in wooden mortars, the coarser part sifted from the meal, and separated from the loose hulls by the wind, they boiled to a thick batter: to which being cold, they added so much of the fine meal, as would serve to stiffen it into paste, whereof they made very good bread. But the best sort of food which the English make of this corn, is that they call samp. Having first watered it about half an hour, and then beaten it in a mortar, or else ground it in a hand or other mill, into the size of rice, they next sift the flour, and winnow the hulls from it. Then they boil it gently till it be tender, and so with milk or butter and sugar, make it into a very pleasant and wholesome dish. This was the most usual diet of the first planters in these parts, and is still in use amongst them, as well in fevers, as in health: and was often prescribed by the learned Dr. Wilson to his patients in London. And of the Indians that live much upon this corn, the English have been informed by them, that the disease of the stone is very seldom known among them. The English have also found out a way to make very good beer of grain: that is, either of bread made hereof, or else by malting it. The way of making beer of bread, is by breaking or cutting it into great lumps, about as large as a man’s fist, to be mashed, and so proceeded with as malt, and the impregnated liquor, as wort, either adding or omitting hops, as is desired.

To make good malt of this corn, a particular way must be taken. The barley, malt-masters have used all their skill to make good malt of it the ordinary way,, but cannot effect it; that is, that the whole grain be malted, and tender and floury, as in other malt. For it is found by experience, that this corn, before it be fully malted, must sprout out both ways, i. e. both root and blade, to a great length, of a finger at least: if more, the better; for which it must be laid on a heap a convenient time.

To avoid all difficulties, this way was tried and found effectual. Take away the top of the earth in a garden or field 2 or 3 inches, throwing it up half one way and half the other. Then lay the corn for malt all over the ground, so as to cover it. Then cover the corn with the earth that was pared off, and there is no more to do, till you see all the plot of ground like a green field covered over with the sprouts of the corn, which will be within 10 or 14 days, according to the time of the year. Then take it up, and shake the earth from it and dry it. This way every grain that is good will grow, and be mellow, floury, and very sweet; and the beer made of it be wholesome, pleasant, and of a good brown colour. Yet beer made of the bread, as aforesaid, being as well coloured, wholesome, pleasant, and more durable, is most in use; because the way of malting this corn, last described, is as yet but little known among them.

Corn in traces in an English House

Corn in traces in an English House

National Apple Dumpling Day

September 18th, 2013 by KM Wall

was September 17th, and apple dumpling were in my dreams. And dumplings in general.

In almost every internet blurb about dumplings or apple dumplings was

Apple dumplings are an ancient British food, described in print from the 17th Century. They were even more popular in the American colonies and Early American period because apples grew well here, dumplings can be made from dried apples as well, and vast boiling pots were the easiest form of cooking to tend and add to in the hearth cooking days.

This is a copy and paste sort of way of tossing some ‘history’ in without doing much heavy lifting. Sigh. and blah blah blah.

Now, since 17th food stuff in print is my bread and butter, as it were,  I know that dumpling recipes are few and far between. There are a few more  dumpling references, indicating that dumplings are the sort of thing that isn’t  likely to find it’s way into a book of cookery, like Capon in the French Fashion or Oxfordshire cakes , because dumplings  are, like their lowly sounding name, common and ordinary fare for the common and ordinary sort.  But there are some references and recipes…..

Very modern (and lovely) apple dumplings - worth having a their own day!

Very modern (and lovely) apple dumplings – worth having a their own day!

I would like to say right here, right now, that I haven’t properly researched dumplings – this is rather random information that a day of looking at apple dumpling images has led me to.

This is the earliest 17th century recipe for dumplings that I found (I haven’t referenced the earlier material). It was in the same section as paste for pies.

To make Paste for Dumplins.

Season your flower with Pepper, Salt, and Yest, let your water be more then warm, then make them up like Manchets, but them be somewhat little, then put them into your water when it boyleth, and let them boil an hour, then butter them.

1653. W. I.  A True Gentlewomans Delight. Falconwood Press: 1991. p. 43.

Essentially, it sounds like a plain dumplings that would be great with chicken….. . Easy, filling, and but no apples.

Chicken and dumplings - or dumplins.....

Chicken and dumplings – or dumplins…..

But, wait, there’s another dumpling recipe, and  it’s a little fancier…..


To make a Dumplin.

Take a pint of Cream and boyl it with a blade of Mace;  then take twelve spoonfuls of grated bread, five spoonfuls of flower;  then take six yolks of Eggs and five whites;  beat them very well with two spoonfuls of Rosewater and as much fair water, season it with sugar, Nutmeg and salt, mingle them altogether with the Cream, tye it in a cloth, and when your water boyles, put it in and boyl it one hour and half, and when it is enough, serve it in with Rosewater, butter and sugar.

1664. Hannah Wolley. The Cooks Guide. p. 34-5.

Still no apples, but this is richer, nicer, sweeter…..and it’s a dumplin in tied up in a cloth. Dumplin is a word we shouldn’t have shucked.

So what’s the difference between this dumplin and a bag pudding?


To boil a Pudding which is uncommonly good.

Take a pond and [a] half of Wheat-flour, three-quarter pond of Currants washed clean, a half pond Kidney-suet, cut it very small, 3 Eggs, on and half Nutmegs, grated fine, a little Salt, mix it with a little sweet Milk so dry that one kneads it like a Bread and tie it in a clean cloth rather close and throw it into a pot with boiling water and let it boil for two hours, then it is done.

Peter Rose, trans. The Sensible Cook. p.79.

This pudding IS uncommonly good. Because The Sensible Cook is a translation of a Dutch cookbook, among our Pilgrim selves we sometimes refer to this a a Dutch Pudding.  But the difference between the dumplin and the bag pudding……too close to call.

If you’d like to see this pudding up close and in person, join us this Saturday afternoon. This pudding is one of the dishes scheduled to be on the table for the Bride-ale feasting.  I should have photos after that to share.

But apples, where are the apples?


Another apple dumpling

Another apple dumpling


To make Apple pufs.

Take a Pomewater or any other Apple that is not hard, or harsh in taste: mince it small with a dozen or twenty Razins of the Sunne: wet the Apples in two Egges, beat them all together with the back of a Knife or Spoone. Season them with Nutmeg, Rosewater, Sugar, and Ginger: drop them into a Frying-pan with a Spoone, fry them like Egges, wring iuyce of an Orenge, or Lemmon, and serve them.

1615. John Murrell. A New Booke of Cookerie. Falconwood press: 1989. p. 21.

Not a dumpling, but very good and easy…..rosewater is a great enhancer of apple flavor, and the squeeze of lemon or orange juice (iuyce)  – genius.


Apple Dumplng Gang- the Movie

Apple Dumpling Gang- the Movie – looking for apple dumplings throughout history????



Making Whoopie (Pies)

September 1st, 2013 by KM Wall

Whoopie! But no whoopie pies in the 17th century.

A month of pies. No tarts, one cheesecake, and so much more that there just wasn’t room for.

Some people have stars in their eyes…lately I’ve had pies. Which would make me pie-eyed, if pie-eyed didn’t already mean something else.

My kind of pie-eyed

My kind of pie-eyed

About pie charts….

Playfair's piechart - the original

Playfair’s pie-chart – the original from 1801

Soon there will be pie-charts about pies:

  • Is ” to make a pie ” the same thing as “to bake a pie”?
  • What is the real and measurable difference between apple tarts and apple pies? Quince tarts and Quince pies? Or is it a subjective difference?
  • What about paste and pastry and coffins and lids?
  • How may kinds of  pastry are there?
  • Venison pies are their own category – to be served hot, to be served cold, of fallow deer, of roe deer, to be kept long, as well as Mutton to taste lie venison, and beef to taste like venison.  The roe and the faux.
  • Meat pies, mince pies, and we’ve only scratched the bits surface. Cockscombs, lambstones,  ox palates – all have pies, too.
  • Across the time access, how do pie shake out? Are there pies from 1588 that disappear before 1688? Do certain pies emerge as the 17th century moves on?
  • Lears and caudles and creams and other sauces to add to pie, speaking of shaking and shogging….what’s their story/backstory?
  • What are the obvious questions that I’m overlooking and should be asking?

Time to take a break from pies, stand back and get some perspective, let the pie dust settle, as it were.

September is harvest time and harvest means


total transition recipes:

To make a tarte of bread.

Take grated bread, and put to it molten Butter, and a litle Rosewater and Sugar, and the yolkes of Egs, and put it into your paste, and bake, and when you serue it, cut it in foure quaters and cast sugar on it.

1591. A. W. A Book of Cookrye.

To make a tarte of bread.

Take grated bread, and put to it molten Butter, and a litle Rosewater and Sugar, and the yolkes of Egs, and put it into your paste, and bake, and when you serue it, cut it in foure quaters and cast sugar on it.

1594 Good Huswifes handmaide to the kitchen.

Entertaining Pie-Eyed

Entertaining Pie-Eyed

Bartholmew Fayre!

August 24th, 2013 by KM Wall

It’s today! and for two weeks in Smithfield in 17th century London. It’s not just a play by Ben  Jonson….

Ben Jonson by Abraham van Blyen

Ben Jonson by Abraham van Blyen


Title page of the play

Title page of the play

There really was a Bartholomew fair. It was suppressed in the 19th century for encouraging debauchery. St Bartholomew is the patron saint of butchers (among other things)

Saints John and Bartholomew - many of the images of Bart show him being flayed alive, hence the butcher patronage

Saints John and Bartholomew – many of the images of Bart show him being flayed alive, hence the butcher patronage.


In re-reading this play, and might I add when I read this in college I never for one minute thought that someday I’d have a job where I’d have to read it again, or I’d have paid more attention to the class that was essentially English playwrights who weren’t Shakespeare who had the great misfortune of working at the same time as the Bard, I remembered

U R S L A, A Pig-Woman.

On first reading I THOUGHT it said


but that just shows you that I have PIE on the brain…anyhow,

By Pig-Woman, did Jonson mean :


Tannakin Skinker, from A Monstrous Shape, or a Shapelesse Monster, 1640

Not quite – he meant a woman who cooked pigs, and sold pigs, and otherwise encouraged the eating of pig.

Swine in Edward Topsell History of Four Footed Beasts

Swine in Edward Topsell History of Four Footed Beasts – these are grown up pigs

To bake a Pigge.

Take your Pig and flea it, and draw out all that clean which is in his bellye, and wash him clean, and perboyle him, season it with Cloves, mace, nutmegs, pepper & salt, and so lay him in the paste with good store of Butter, then set it in the Oven till it be baked inough.

1591 .A.W  Book of Cookrye.


For to bake a Pigge.

Flea your Pigge, and take out all that is within his bellie cleane, and wash him well, and after perboyle him, then season it with Pepper, Salt, Nutmegs, Mace, and cloues, and so lay him with good store of Butter in the paste: Then set it in the Ouen till it be baked ynough.

 1597.The good Huswifes handmaide for the Kitchin



Gala Pie

August 22nd, 2013 by KM Wall

In looking over pies, and seeking out images, I came across an English pie called a Gala Pie. And since tonight is Plimoth Plantation’s Many Hands Gala, it seemed too perfect to be true.

Gala Pie is a true thing, and an English thing, it’s just not a 17th century thing.


Because Gala Pie is a delightful thing.

Gala Pie - how to make - secret hard boiled egg placement - the hint is to mark the pie pan so you know where to cut

Gala Pie – how to make – secret hard boiled egg placement – the hint is to mark the pie pan so you know where to cut so it looks as if there is one egg going all around OR make the tube egg

Gala Pie is essentially a pork pie with hard boiled egg in the middle. Some will separate the yolks from the white, put all the beaten yolks in a tube and cook them and  then put the cooked yolk in a larger tube with the whites and cook them to make a giant tube egg, which you then put in the the center of the pie so that everyone gets the same view of the endless egg….this is exactly the sort of play with your food trick that would delight our 17th century housewives and husbandmen.

The Guardian has a picture by picture story, which is where these picture came from.

The finished Gala Pie

The finished Gala Pie

Gala Pie is really just a dolled up pork pie.

Pork Pie hat

Pork Pie hat

Not that pork pie….more like this220px-Pork_pie

 In the 17th century, there were also pork pies with hard boiled eggs….keep in mind that bacon can mean fresh pork, as well as salted pork.

To bake a gammon of Bacon.

Take your Bacon and boyle it, and stuffe it with Parcely and Sage, and yolks of hard Egges, and when it is boyled, stuffe it and let it boyle againe, season it with Pepper, cloves and mace, whole cloves stick fast in, so then lay it in your paste with salt butter.

1591 .A.W  Book Of Cookrye.


 and for another version that starts out exactly the same, and then ends a little differently……

For to bake a Gammon of Bacon.

Boyle your gammon of Bacon and stuffe it with Parsley and Sage, and yolks of hard Egs, and when it is boyled, stuffe it and let it boyle againe, season it with Pepper, Cloues, and Mace, sticke whole Cloues fast in it: Then lay it so in your paste with salte butter, and so bake it.

1597. The good Huswifes handmaide for the Kitchin

For a slightly different version…..

A gammon of bacon pie.

Take a gammon of bacon and only wash it clean, and then boil it on a soft gentle fire till it be boiled as tender as possible, ever and anon fleeting it clean, that by all means it may be boil white: then take off the sward, and farce it very well with all manner of sweet and pleasant farcing herbs: the strew store of pepper over it, and prick it thick with cloves: then lay it into a coffin made of the same proportion, and lay good store of butter, that as it melts, the pepper may fall upon the bacon: then cover it, and make the proportion of a pig’s head in paste upon it, and then bake it as you bake red deer, or things of the like nature, only the paste would be wheat meal.

Markham, The English Housewife, Best ed. p. 101.

Gastronomica Winter 2011 cover - gold plated pig head, not a pastry one.

Gastronomica Winter 2011 cover – gold plated pig head, not a pastry one.


Neat Feet

August 17th, 2013 by KM Wall

Back to bits…..the feet of Neat become a pie…

Somehow it seems wrong to insert images of hairy hooves…..check out the blog roll – both of these cookbooks are now linked.

How to bake pyes of Calves feet.

Take Calves feet and wash them, boyle and blanch the haire of them, season them with cloves and mace, and a little pepper, vergious and sugar, dates, prunes, corance, and sweet butter, then make your paste of fine flower with yolkes of Egges, and raise the Coffin square, when it if halfe baked, then take it out and put in Vergious and sugar with the yolks of hard Egs strained.

1591 .A.W  Book of Cookrye.


coffin square

coffin square – Robert May

To bake Calues feet.

Take Calues feet and seeth them tender, pull off the haire, then slit them, and make your paste fine, and when you haue made your coffin, before you put in your feet take great Raisons and mince them small, and plucke out the kernels, and strawe them in the bottome of your pie: then season your feete with Pepper, Salt, cloues and Mace, then lay in the feet, and straw Corrans on them, and Sugar, and a good peece of Butter in it, and close it vp, and make a litle hole in the lid, and when it is almost baked ynough, put in a messe of Uergious, and so serue them.

1594, 1597. The good Huswifes handmaide for the Kitchin


To bake Calues feet after the French fashion.

Take the feete, pull off the hair, and make them cleane, and boyle them a litle till they be somewhat tender, then make your paste, and season your Calues feet with pepper, Salt, and Synamon, and put them in your paste, with a quantitie of sweet Butter, Parsley and Onions among them, so close it vp, and set it into the Ouen til they be halfe baken. Then take them foorth, and open the crowne, and put in more butter & some Uinegar, so let them stand in the Ouen til they be thoroughlie baken.

1594, 1597. The good Huswifes handmaide for the Kitchin

Pie with a vent hole

Pie with a vent hole – illustration from Robert May

To make a creamapple Pie

August 13th, 2013 by KM Wall

Pie is a great improver of apples, which are mighty fine to begin with.

Cream is a great improver of almost everything, so the grand combination of

cream +apple + pie = TOTALLY FANTASTIC

To make a creamapple Pie.

Take your apples, & slice them, & put some butter & some sugar to them, & so put them in the paste, & bake them, when they are baked cut open the pie, & put in a good deale of sweet cream, & stir it well together, & then let it stand a little, till it bee somewhat cold, & so serve it to the boord.

-Elinor Fettiplace’s Receipt  Book 1604-1647.  Hilary Spurling, Penguin, p. 97.



page from John Gerard The Herbal – notice that apples have a King and a Queen – just like the Prom. And England.

According to Wikipedia, this is a typical apple.

According to Wikipedia, this is a typical apple.

When you go to Wikipedia for Apple, it takes you here before the fruit

When you go to Wikipedia for Apple, it takes you here before the fruit


Apple of thine (p)eye

August 12th, 2013 by KM Wall

Proverbs 7:2   Keep my commandments, and thou shalt live, and mine instruction, as the apple of thine eyes.

Apples. Apple pies. Pippin Pies. Codling pies. Tarts likewise. Hard to talk about English pies without apples.

Hard to imagine New England without them. And yet, that is exactly the landscape the Pilgrims entered in 1620. Within 20 years English colonist changed that landscapes. Consider that apples grow on trees which don’t quite  grow as easily as radishes…..

Apple trees so plentiful that a few generations down the road, a local born lad puts a mushpot on his head and goes west to plant more apples.

Johnny Appleseed 1862

Johnny Appleseed 1862

And has a song about apples and apple trees…

Jesus Christ and the Apple Tree

Jesus Christ and the Apple Tree

Back in England, a couple of generations later, Four Fab lads from Myles Standish’s old stomping grounds get together, sing a little, shake it up, baby,  all together now with Apple….

Apple Corps logo

Apple Corps logo


And yet, didn’t all the trouble in the world start because of an apple?

Duer (1507) Adam and Eve

Duer (1507) Adam and Eve


To fry Applepies.

Take Apples and pare them, and chop them very small, beat in a little Cinnamon, a little Ginger, and some Sugar, a little Rosewater, take your paste, roul it thin, and make them up as big Pasties as you please, to hold a spoonful or a little lesse of your Apples; and so stir them with Butter not to hastily least they be burned.

- 1653. W. I. A True Gentlewomans Delight.

Fried apple pies from North Carolina -the more things change.....

Fried apple pies from North Carolina -the more things change…..

Other fish (pies) in the sea

August 10th, 2013 by KM Wall

There are several sorts of fish that are mentioned over and over again in recipes.










Oops – not THAT mullet….

Mullet - Mugil cephalus

Mullet – Mugil cephalus – that’s right – a Mugil




and then there’s the

Bace a/ka/a Bass

Bass, Striped

Bass, Striped

And also


Lamprey - parts labeled

Lamprey – parts labeled

That right, lamprey.



Henry I of England was said to have died from a surfeit of lampreys .

Henry I - 17th century portrait.....a little after the fact

Henry I – 17th century portrait…..a little after the fact, but this is how 17th century people ‘saw’ him

Queen Elizabeth II had a coronation pie made of lampreys for her in 1953.


Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II - ceremony first, then food

Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II – ceremony first, then food

I’m still stuck on the part where lampreys skeeve me out.

another lamprey

another lamprey

Lamprey mouth...this is the skeevey part

Lamprey mouth…this is the skeevey part

If the mouth doesn't get you, this might - lamprey in action!

If the mouth doesn’t get you, this might – lamprey in action!

And now for some recipes……thanks to Robert May The Accomplist Cook.

To bake a Lampry.

Draw it, and split the back on the inside from the mouth to the end of the tail, take out the string in the back, flay her and truss her round, parboil it and season it with nutmeg, pepper, and salt, put some butter in the bottom of the pie, and lay on the lampry with two or three good big onions, a few whole cloves and butter, close it up and baste it over with yolks of eggs, and beer 348 or saffron water, bake it, and being baked, fill it up with clarified butter, stop it up with butter in the vent hole, and put in some claret wine, but that will not keep long.

To bake a Lampry otherways with an Eel.

Flay it, splat it, and take out the garbidg, then have a good fat eel, flay it, draw it, and bone it, wipe them dry from the slime, and season them with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, cut them in equal pieces as may conveniently lye in a square or round pye, lay butter in the bottom, and three or four good whole onions, then lay a layer of eels over the butter, and on that lay a lampry, then another of eel, thus do till the pye be full, and on the top of all put some whole cloves and butter, close it up and bake it being basted over with saffron water, yolks of eggs, and beer, and being baked and cold, fill it up with beaten butter. Make your pies according to these forms.

pot pot

To bake a Lampry in the Italian Fashion to eat hot.

Flay it, and season it with nutmeg, pepper, salt, cinamon, and ginger, fill the pie either with Lampry cut in pieces or whole, put to it raisins, currans, prunes, dryed cherries, dates, and butter, close it up, and bake it, being baked liquor it with strained almonds, grape verjuyce, sugar, sweet herbs chop’t and boil’d all together, serve it 349 with juyce of orange, white wine, cinamon, and the blood of the lampry, and ice it, thus you may also do lampurns baked for hot.

To bake a Lampry otherways in Patty-pan or dish.

Take a lampry, roast it in pieces, being drawn and flayed, baste it with butter, and being roasted and cold, put it into a dish with paste or puff paste; put butter to it, being first seasoned with pepper, nutmeg, cinamon, ginger, and salt, seasoned lightly, some sweet herbs chopped, grated bisket bread, currans, dates, or slic’t lemon, close it up and bake it, being baked liquor it with butter, white-wine, or sack, and sugar.



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