Tagged ‘milk’

National Indian Pudding Day

November 13th, 2013 by KM Wall

Sampe Fest wasn’t just about Jonnycakes….

It was also about Indian Pudding. Or as it was sometimes referred to:

Indian-meal Pudding

Samp Fest 2013

Samp Fest 2013

Big Batch Indian Pudding

3 Quarts milk

2 cups cornmeal (Plimoth Grist Mill cornmeal is the best!)

1 jar (12 ounces) molasses (non-sulphered or mild)

1 stick butter (1/4 pound)

6 eggs

4 teaspoons cinnamon

2 tsp ginger

 

 

Butter a large slow cooker and pre-heat on high.

Use a large heavy bottomed pan on the stove (so the milk doesn’t scorch). The milk will rise up when it heats, so give it plenty of room. When the milk is just under a boil (lots of bubbles forming), whisk in the cornmeal; keep stirring until the cornmeal thickens about 10-15 minutes. Add the rest of the butter, turn off the heat and cover the pan.

Beat the eggs with the molasses and the spices.

Add some of the hot corn/milk mixture to temper the eggs and then add that to the rest of the corn mixture. Blend thoroughly. Scrape into the buttered, pre-heat slow cooker.

Cook on low for 6-8 hours.

Serve with vanilla ice cream, whipped cream or light cream…..

 

Options:

Raisins, cranberries or chopped apples may be added into the slow cooker, either a little or a lot.

There’s a real divide with the fruit people – they love it or hate it!

 

It’s also good re-heated for breakfast.

 Cinnamon whipped cream is also pretty heavenly….

plimoth grist mill prodcut

 

 

 

In for a Penny (Loaf)….

October 16th, 2013 by KM Wall

….in for a pound.

In celebration of National B read Day, a smidgeon more on Maize, Indian corn and bread in New England before there were mills, corn bread being the most common sort of bread, maize being the most common sort of corn.

“It [maize] is light of digestion, and the English make a kind of Loblolly of it, to eat with Milk, which they call Sampe ; they beat it in a Morter, and sift the flower out of it; the remainder they call Homminey, which they put in a Pot of two or three Gallons, with Water, and boyl it upon a gentle Fire till it be like Hasty Pudden; they put of this into Milk, and so eat it. Their Bread also they make of the Homminey so boiled, and mix their Flower with it, cast it into a deep Bason in which they form the loaf, and then turn it out upon the Peel, and presently put it into the Oven before it spreads abroad; the Flower makes excellent Puddens.”

- Josslyn, John. New Englands rarities. 1672. Mass. Historical Society, 1972, p. 52.

And now with pictures….Kathy Devlin, Colonial Foodways Artisan, took these photos in the modern kitchen making the back-up bread.

It [maize] is light of digestion, and the English make a kind of Loblolly of it, to eat with Milk, which they call Sampe ; they beat it in a Morter, and sift the flower out of it; 

Maize

Maize – before it is beaten

and sift the flower out of it;

the remainder they call Homminey, which they put in a Pot of two or three Gallons, with Water, and boyl it upon a gentle Fire till it be like Hasty Pudden;

Ground corn, flour gone, in a pot with water, waiting to boil...

Ground corn, flour gone, in a pot with water, waiting to boil…

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Like Hasty Pudden

Like Hasty Pudden

 

Their Bread also they make of the Homminey so boiled, and mix their Flower with it,

Flour and cooked corn groats together - wait till it isn't hot enough to burn you....

Flour and cooked corn groats together – wait till it isn’t hot enough to burn you….

cast it into a deep Bason in which they form the loaf,

A  bowl - size bases on the the size of the oven and the size we'd like of the finished loaf....

A basin (or bowl) – size based on the the size of the oven and the size we’d like  the finished loaf….

Flour, cooked samp or homminey together in a bowl.....

Flour, cooked samp or homminey together in a bowl…..

and then turn it out upon the Peel,

Not exactly a peel, rather the silpat sheet it'll be baked on in the modern oven

Not exactly a peel, rather the silpat sheet it’ll be baked on in the modern oven

and presently put it into the Oven before it spreads abroad

Bread in the modern oven

Bread in the modern oven

The finished loaves

The finished loaves

 

 

 

 

 

 

To make French Bread, English style

October 3rd, 2013 by KM Wall
Evelyn's motto written in a book he bought in Paris in 1651. Keep what is better

Evelyn’s motto written in a book he bought in Paris in 1651. Keep what is better

343. To make french Bread.

Take a gallon of flowr take 3 whites of Eggs beat them well and mix them with a pint of good Ale yest, take some new milke and a litle water set it over the fire put in a qr of a pound of butter make it hott enough to melt it, mix it with the Eggs and yest, then mix up the bread as slight as for a cake let it rise a qr of an houre lay the loaves upon flowred paper what bignesse you please the oven must be well heat an hour bakes them.”

- Driver, Christopher, ed. John Evelyn, Cook. Prospect Books: Devon, 1981. p. 177.

Egg white and milk to enrich, and melted butter, and on paper instead of in dishes like the other French bread in Evelyn’s notebooks

 

John Evelyn - 1651 - engraving by Robert Nanteuil

John Evelyn – 1651 – engraving by Robert Nanteuil

TO MAKE FRENCH BREAD

Take a gallon of flowre & put to it a little salt, a pinte of ale yeast, a quart of new milke heated, but not too hot. poure these inot ye flowre, & mix them with one hand, you must not knead it at all. yn heat a woolen cloth & pour your paste on it, flower ye cloth, & lap it up. yn make it into a dosin of loves & set ym on a peele, flowred, & lay a warm wollen cloth on ym. yr oven must be allmoste hot when you mix the bread. heat yr oven pritty hot, & chip yr bread when it comes out.”    – Karen Hess, ed. Martha Washington’s Book of Cookery. p. 113. (later 17th century)

Pavillon_royal_de_la_France

 

 

French Bread, English style in the 17th century

September 30th, 2013 by KM Wall

If I say French bread, you probably think:

Baguette

 

Baguettes

Baguettes

BUT…

There’s more then one French bread, and baguette is a relative newcomer in the French Bread world.

Boule - which rather resembles Englsih 17th century household bread

Boule – a more traditional loaf which rather resembles English 17th century household bread

Pain de campagne - french country bread, a mix of grains, with some sour leaven and ranging in size from 4-12 pounds. This whole description could have been lifted from Gervase Markham's  Cheate Bread

Pain de campagne – french country bread, a mix of grains, with some sour leaven and ranging in size from 4-12 pounds. This whole description could have been lifted from Gervase Markham’s Cheate Bread

The more traditional French breads are like 17th century English breads in that they have four essential ingredients:

Flour (sometimes spelled flower, as in ‘the flower of the grain’)

Flours

Flours

Water

 

Water in it's three forms - liquid is the form used in bread making

Water in it’s three forms – liquid is the form used in bread making

Leaven

Jan Luyken etching - Parable of the leaven

Jan Luyken etching – Parable of the leaven

 

Luke 13:20-21

1599 Geneva Bible (GNV)

20  And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God?

21 It is like leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three pecks of flour, till all was leavened.

and Salt

salt production, 1670 in Halle or Halle an der Saale a city in the German state Saxony-Anhalt.

Salt production, 1670 in Halle or Halle an der Saale a city in the German state Saxony-Anhalt.

But 17th century English recipes for French bread have something more

Milk

and  Eggs or Butter.

French bread, for our 17th century English men, was an enriched bread.

Hear France say, “Oh, la, la!”

269. To make French Bread.

Take 3 qrts of fine flower two Eggs a litle salt halfe a pint of Ale yest and a halfe a pint of milk a litle warme put all these together and work them up to a dough, then put them into litle dishes and let them rise halfe an houre, after bake them this quantity will make on Dozen and halfe of loaves.”

-         Driver, Christopher, ed. John Evelyn, Cook. Prospect Books: Devon, 1981. p. 149.

 

Yet Another Manchet Monday

September 23rd, 2013 by KM Wall

Lady of Arundels manchet.

Take a bushel of fine Wheat-flower, twenty eggs, three pound of Fresh butter, then take as much Salt and Barme, as to the ordinary Manchet, temper it together with new Milk prettie hot, then let it lie the space of half an hour to rise, so you may work it up into bread, and bake it, let not your Oven be too hot.

- 1653. A True Gentlewomans Delight. W.I, Gent. London. (Falconwood Press:1991.(trans) p. 54

Very interesting bread.

  1.  Butter, milk and eggs make this a very different sort of manchet. This really falls into the sweetbreads category.
  2. And then there’s the Arundel family. Jjust who is Lady Arundel? What’s her  backstory?
Arundel Castle in West Sussex

Arundel Castle in West Sussex

The castle goes back to 1067….as does the earldom title.

The town of Arundel

The town of Arundel – you can see the castle up on the hill

The interesting  thing about the title is that succession issues get a little mired – in the 17th century, but of course!

22nd Earl of Arundel

22nd Earl of Arundel – Henry Howard

 

I think this might be the husband of the Lady the recipe came from. She was Lady Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Esme Stuart,Third Duke of Lennox. There is no image of her that I could find. They marry in 1626 and have 9 children. BTW, there is a portrait or two of Henry Howard’s  godmother:

Anne of Denmark, also married to James I and VI, King of England and Scotland, &cetera

Anne of Denmark, also married to James I and VI, King of England and Scotland, & cetera

But this is one of things were timing is EVERYTHING. Henry Howard, 22nd Earl  of Arundel dies 17 April 1652. So, has our mysterious gentleman, W. I. already moved on to the next Lady Arundel or ….

The story of these offspring would make a GREAT mini-series for Masterpiece Theater, once they run through the Downton Abbey crew. Insanity, Roman Catholic Cardinals…..Really – you can’t make this stuff up.

AND

Lady Arundel’s Manchet has it’s own Wikipedia entry.

Which doesn’t include the recipe.

What the Wiki entry misses is how different from other period manchets this bread is. Which you already know. But also, how much this manchet is like 17th century English French Bread.

 

National Apple Dumpling Day

September 18th, 2013 by KM Wall

was September 17th, and apple dumpling were in my dreams. And dumplings in general.

In almost every internet blurb about dumplings or apple dumplings was

Apple dumplings are an ancient British food, described in print from the 17th Century. They were even more popular in the American colonies and Early American period because apples grew well here, dumplings can be made from dried apples as well, and vast boiling pots were the easiest form of cooking to tend and add to in the hearth cooking days.

This is a copy and paste sort of way of tossing some ‘history’ in without doing much heavy lifting. Sigh. and blah blah blah.

Now, since 17th food stuff in print is my bread and butter, as it were,  I know that dumpling recipes are few and far between. There are a few more  dumpling references, indicating that dumplings are the sort of thing that isn’t  likely to find it’s way into a book of cookery, like Capon in the French Fashion or Oxfordshire cakes , because dumplings  are, like their lowly sounding name, common and ordinary fare for the common and ordinary sort.  But there are some references and recipes…..

Very modern (and lovely) apple dumplings - worth having a their own day!

Very modern (and lovely) apple dumplings – worth having a their own day!

I would like to say right here, right now, that I haven’t properly researched dumplings – this is rather random information that a day of looking at apple dumpling images has led me to.

This is the earliest 17th century recipe for dumplings that I found (I haven’t referenced the earlier material). It was in the same section as paste for pies.

To make Paste for Dumplins.

Season your flower with Pepper, Salt, and Yest, let your water be more then warm, then make them up like Manchets, but them be somewhat little, then put them into your water when it boyleth, and let them boil an hour, then butter them.

1653. W. I.  A True Gentlewomans Delight. Falconwood Press: 1991. p. 43.

Essentially, it sounds like a plain dumplings that would be great with chicken….. . Easy, filling, and but no apples.

Chicken and dumplings - or dumplins.....

Chicken and dumplings – or dumplins…..

But, wait, there’s another dumpling recipe, and  it’s a little fancier…..

 

To make a Dumplin.

Take a pint of Cream and boyl it with a blade of Mace;  then take twelve spoonfuls of grated bread, five spoonfuls of flower;  then take six yolks of Eggs and five whites;  beat them very well with two spoonfuls of Rosewater and as much fair water, season it with sugar, Nutmeg and salt, mingle them altogether with the Cream, tye it in a cloth, and when your water boyles, put it in and boyl it one hour and half, and when it is enough, serve it in with Rosewater, butter and sugar.

1664. Hannah Wolley. The Cooks Guide. p. 34-5.

Still no apples, but this is richer, nicer, sweeter…..and it’s a dumplin in tied up in a cloth. Dumplin is a word we shouldn’t have shucked.

So what’s the difference between this dumplin and a bag pudding?

 

To boil a Pudding which is uncommonly good.

Take a pond and [a] half of Wheat-flour, three-quarter pond of Currants washed clean, a half pond Kidney-suet, cut it very small, 3 Eggs, on and half Nutmegs, grated fine, a little Salt, mix it with a little sweet Milk so dry that one kneads it like a Bread and tie it in a clean cloth rather close and throw it into a pot with boiling water and let it boil for two hours, then it is done.

Peter Rose, trans. The Sensible Cook. p.79.

This pudding IS uncommonly good. Because The Sensible Cook is a translation of a Dutch cookbook, among our Pilgrim selves we sometimes refer to this a a Dutch Pudding.  But the difference between the dumplin and the bag pudding……too close to call.

If you’d like to see this pudding up close and in person, join us this Saturday afternoon. This pudding is one of the dishes scheduled to be on the table for the Bride-ale feasting.  I should have photos after that to share.

But apples, where are the apples?

 

Another apple dumpling

Another apple dumpling

 

To make Apple pufs.

Take a Pomewater or any other Apple that is not hard, or harsh in taste: mince it small with a dozen or twenty Razins of the Sunne: wet the Apples in two Egges, beat them all together with the back of a Knife or Spoone. Season them with Nutmeg, Rosewater, Sugar, and Ginger: drop them into a Frying-pan with a Spoone, fry them like Egges, wring iuyce of an Orenge, or Lemmon, and serve them.

1615. John Murrell. A New Booke of Cookerie. Falconwood press: 1989. p. 21.

Not a dumpling, but very good and easy…..rosewater is a great enhancer of apple flavor, and the squeeze of lemon or orange juice (iuyce)  – genius.

 

Apple Dumplng Gang- the Movie

Apple Dumpling Gang- the Movie – looking for apple dumplings throughout history????

 

 

Cheesey interlude…

August 23rd, 2013 by KM Wall

I know I said no cheesecakes in the Pie-wise Time, but I’m always a little confused between Cheesecake,which is no cake, and Boson Cream Pie, which is no pie, but in the end it’s ….

As You Like It

As You Like It

Which would be the name of the little cafe I would run, if I had the Time and the Money and the Inclination, which I really don’t…..and the sign on the door would read:

Sit down and feed, and welcome to our table

 (Act II, scene 7 Duke Senior to Orlando)

where there would be pies….and Boston Cream Pies

Boston Cream Pie (really a cake)

Boston Cream Pie (really a cake-ish)

and cheesecakes

Cheesecake with raspberries...rather pie-ish

Cheesecake with raspberries…rather pie-ish

and 17th century goodies to serve with coffee and tea and chocolate beverages that aren’t in Plimoth Colony (or much of England) for the first half of the seventeenth century. No gin, either. However did they manage?

By goodies, I mean jumbles and Shrewsbury cakes  and Oxfordshire cakes and Peach Pie and of course, 17th century cheesecake.

 

Cheesecake from the Warren House August 2013 - photo by Makla Benjamen

Cheesecake from the Warren House August 2013 – photo by Malka Benjamen – very Vermeer-ish

To make Cheesecakes.

Let your paste be very good, either puff-paste or cold butter-paste, with sugar mixed with it, then the whey being dried very well from the cheese-curds which must be made of new milk or butter, beat them in a mortar or tray, with a quarter of a pound of butter to every pottle of curds, a good quantity of rose-water, three grains of ambergriese or musk prepared, the crums of a small manchet rubbed through a cullender, the yolks of ten eggs, a grated nutmeg, a little salt, and good store of sugar, mix all these well together with a little cream, but do not make them too soft; instead of bread you may take almonds which are much better; bake them in a quick oven, and let them not stand too long in, least they should be to dry.

Robert May The Accomplist Cook

NOTES:

  1. If you buy packaged puff paste the work is half done – cut circles and fold the edges over to make this shape. These are not necessarily deep dish cheesecakes…. think more like cheese danish
  2. Ricotta make a good stand in for fresh cheese curds
  3. This is an Italian style cheesecake, not a New York style one.
  4. almonds are MUCH better the bread crumbs
Cheesecake design from Robert May

One of many cheesecake designs from Robert May

 

There are still tickets available to As You Like It by the Plimoth Players….check out the website….and would you like this blog in your in-box? It’s easy, just fill in your e-mail address…

from Curds to Cheesecake

July 30th, 2013 by KM Wall

When the Protestant reformation hit England, the nation found that banning the Old Calendar and it’s Feast Days, left the people bereft of days to publicly celebrate. The Accession of Elizabeth to the throne – popularly known as Crownation Day (November 19th) was one of the first non-religious nationwide public holidays for England. Today I get notices of daily food celebration days, because it’s not just the food, it’s the ways……

So it seems that today is National Cheesecake Day.  No doubt most are celebrating with something more along the lines of a New York style cheese cake, or perhaps Philadelphia style cheesecake, both of which   include cream cheese. For our 17th Century English Housewife, cheesecake would indeed be for a special day, and would probably begin with milking the cow and her cheesecake would include fresh curds, spice and currents or raisins. No cream cheese.

Straining the morning's milk

Straining the morning’s milk – nice and frothy, good milking!

 

Freshly made cheese

Freshly made cheese

Her cheesecake would also not be New York style, but more like an Italian Easter Pie.

Pastiera Napoletara - Italian Easter Pie

Pastiera Napoletana – Italian Easter Pie

 

To make Cheesecakes otherwayes.
Take a good morning milk cheese, or better, of some eight pound weight, stamp it in a mortar, and beat a pound of butter amongst it, and a pound of sugar, then mix with it beaten mace, two pound of currans well picked and washed, a penny manchet grated, or a pound of almonds blanched and beaten fine with rose-water, and some salt; then boil some cream, and thicken it with six or eight yolks of eggs, mixed with the other things, work them well together, and fill the cheesecakes, make the curd not too soft, and make the past of cold butter and water according to these forms.
- Robert May, The Accomplish’t Cook

Did you notice the EIGHT POUNDS of milk cheese? As well as a pound of butter? This is cheesecake for a crowd.

 

Robert May's form of cheesecakes

Robert May’s form of cheesecakes

 

whyt meate

June 7th, 2013 by KM Wall

Whyte meat? Is that olde-thyme speak for ‘whitemeat’? What happened to the goat milking/cheese making conversation? Isn’t chicken whitemeat? Or pork, the other whitemeat? Or is the another other whitemeat?

Why, yes.

To quote Andrew Boorde  and the Here foloweth a Compenyous Regiment or Dyetary of health, made in Mountpyller  [this]

Chapitre treateth of whyt meate, as of egges, butter, chese, mylke, crayme, &c.

So whitemeat is also DAIRY, so it all ties in the the goats and the curds….

Just a little headnote – it seems that this very same Andrew Boorde may be the original ‘merryandrew’, which you may recall was a sort of jack pudding, or clown or buffon or jester or fool. It’s not that the dear Doctor didn’t study afar and write extensively – his titles alone are exercises in length – he just seems to have rather lost his marbles, as it were, towards his end, which was in the Fleet (prison that is, not the street), wearing a hair shirt and possibly keeping loose woman.  Three loose women.

Miraim-Webster dates the first use of  merry-andrew at 1677, 150 years after his death….

Merry Andrew is also a movie with Danny Kaye.

Merry Andrew - 1958 - Danny Kaye

Merry Andrew – 1958 – Danny Kaye

Back to whitemeats.

Whitemeats as a dairy product is the older term of the word ( I almost said original, but it would take several hours of poking around to confirm or deny, so I found me a fence to sit on, pondering Danny Kaye and Merry Andrews). Back to Monday’s workshop:

Curds forming - last Monday at the workshop

Curds forming – last Monday at the workshop

 

 

Whey and curds

Whey and curds

Moving curds to a cloth to straine

Moving curds to a cloth to strain

 

 

 

 

 

 

More straining

More straining

Dripping and draining

Dripping and draining

One batch was animal rennet; the other vegetable rennet

One batch was animal rennet; the other vegetable rennet

Kathy prepping the cloth to strain the second batch

Kathy prepping the cloth to strain the second batch

 

 

 

 

 

More curds

More curds

Ready to eat

Ready to eat

 

More ready to eat

More ready to eat

Kat provide even more whitemeat snackage then we made there.....

Kathy provided even more whitemeat snackage then we made there…..

Sweet Cheese Are Made of These…

June 5th, 2013 by KM Wall
Claude Lorrain - Landscape with Apollo Guarding the Herds of Admetus and Mercury stealing them (1645)

Claude Lorrain – Landscape with Apollo Guarding the Herds of Admetus and Mercury stealing them (1645)

Cows…their milk, actually. And also these……

San Clemente goat - still a baby, so not used in the following workshop

San Clemente goat – still a baby, so not used in the following workshop

What makes a Pilgrim a Pilgrim in the end? Piles of books, tons of reading, lots of questions, talk, talk, talk, (that’s the dialect practice – right), plenty of hard work in a heavy wool suit  AND Hands-On BTS Workshops.

Be prepared – you are about see some Pilgrims without their clothes on. Pilgrim clothes, that is.

Monday night Kathy and Norah led us in a Milking to Cheese-tasting Workshop.

First, the milking.

Before there is cheese, there is milk. We had some lovely Alpines helping out. Alpines are not a rare-breed, unlike the Arapawas   (descendents of early English milch goats  left to fend for themselves off the coast of New Zealand and rescued by Betty Rowe)

Arapawa goat

Arapawa goat

They are also somewhat skittish and can be a little tricky to milk. And they don’t tend to like a lot of strangers. So we let them be.

The other rare breed goat we have are San Clemente Island goats. Although originally of Spanish origin, and so genotype would not be English, they LOOK like English goats for the 1600′s, so their phenotype is just fine. Shocking Behind the Scenes Secrets Revealed!!!!

These cuties are in the national Zoo in Washington DC

These cuties are in the national Zoo in Washington DC

Alpines also give more milk, which means more cheese……

Malka and Norah and an Alpine good girl - the milking stand is very usuful, and something not found for 17th century goatmilkers

Stacey and Malka and Norah and an Alpine good girl – the milking stand is very useful, and something not found for 17th century goatmilkers

 

Alex Milking

Alex Milking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Close up of milking action shot - I have about 2 dozen of these...it's hard to tell who from who...

Close up of milking action shot – I have about 2 dozen of these…it’s hard to tell who from who…

 

Milking done, it's time to strain - and notice the froth - that's a sign of GOOD milking action!

Milking done, it’s time to strain – and notice the froth – that’s a sign of GOOD milking action!

LOTS of froth!

Frothy!

 

 

 

 

 

 

LOTS of froth!!!

LOTS of froth!!!

 

Once the goats (or cows) are milked, and the milk is strained, it’s time to make the cheese…..

Taccuino Sanitatis Casanatense - Cheesemaking

Taccuino Sanitatis Casanatense – Cheesemaking

To be continued…….

 

 

© 2003-2011 Plimoth Plantation. All rights reserved.

Plimoth Plantation is a not-for-profit 501 (c)3 organization, supported by admissions, grants, members, volunteers, and generous contributors.