Tagged ‘flour’

In for a Penny (Loaf)….

October 16th, 2013 by KM Wall

….in for a pound.

In celebration of National B read Day, a smidgeon more on Maize, Indian corn and bread in New England before there were mills, corn bread being the most common sort of bread, maize being the most common sort of corn.

“It [maize] is light of digestion, and the English make a kind of Loblolly of it, to eat with Milk, which they call Sampe ; they beat it in a Morter, and sift the flower out of it; the remainder they call Homminey, which they put in a Pot of two or three Gallons, with Water, and boyl it upon a gentle Fire till it be like Hasty Pudden; they put of this into Milk, and so eat it. Their Bread also they make of the Homminey so boiled, and mix their Flower with it, cast it into a deep Bason in which they form the loaf, and then turn it out upon the Peel, and presently put it into the Oven before it spreads abroad; the Flower makes excellent Puddens.”

- Josslyn, John. New Englands rarities. 1672. Mass. Historical Society, 1972, p. 52.

And now with pictures….Kathy Devlin, Colonial Foodways Artisan, took these photos in the modern kitchen making the back-up bread.

It [maize] is light of digestion, and the English make a kind of Loblolly of it, to eat with Milk, which they call Sampe ; they beat it in a Morter, and sift the flower out of it; 

Maize

Maize – before it is beaten

and sift the flower out of it;

the remainder they call Homminey, which they put in a Pot of two or three Gallons, with Water, and boyl it upon a gentle Fire till it be like Hasty Pudden;

Ground corn, flour gone, in a pot with water, waiting to boil...

Ground corn, flour gone, in a pot with water, waiting to boil…

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Like Hasty Pudden

Like Hasty Pudden

 

Their Bread also they make of the Homminey so boiled, and mix their Flower with it,

Flour and cooked corn groats together - wait till it isn't hot enough to burn you....

Flour and cooked corn groats together – wait till it isn’t hot enough to burn you….

cast it into a deep Bason in which they form the loaf,

A  bowl - size bases on the the size of the oven and the size we'd like of the finished loaf....

A basin (or bowl) – size based on the the size of the oven and the size we’d like  the finished loaf….

Flour, cooked samp or homminey together in a bowl.....

Flour, cooked samp or homminey together in a bowl…..

and then turn it out upon the Peel,

Not exactly a peel, rather the silpat sheet it'll be baked on in the modern oven

Not exactly a peel, rather the silpat sheet it’ll be baked on in the modern oven

and presently put it into the Oven before it spreads abroad

Bread in the modern oven

Bread in the modern oven

The finished loaves

The finished loaves

 

 

 

 

 

 

A little more french bisket

October 13th, 2013 by KM Wall

Are these more biskets or are these more french?

La Varrene

La Varrene – The (original) French Chef!

La Varenne  brought his cookbook out in 1651. By 1653 it had been ‘Englished”  and was for sale in London.

He also has a recipe for bisket. Two, in fact. If it’s in a French cookbook does that make it a French biscuit even if they don’t call it that?

How to make bisket.

Take eight eggs, one pound of sugar into powder, with three quarters of a pound of flowre. Mix all together and thus it will be neither too soft nor too hard.

- 1653. Francois Pierre La Varenne. Englished by L.D.G The French Cook.  intro by Philip and Mary Hyman. Southover Press: 2001. p.240.

These are more like the just plain bisket – or English bisket – then the french bisket. Notice how they don’t get boiled first. Note also that although La Varenne is considered THE man to talk about when talking about modernized (as opposed to medieval), codified French cuisine, there are still lovely vaguenesses as “thus it will be neither too soft nor too hard”. Maybe that’s just the translator talking.

The very last recipe in the book is another bisket.

How to make bisket of Savoy.

Take six yolks and eight whites [of] eggs, with one pound of sugar in powder, three quarters of a pound of good flower made of good wheat, and some aniseed, beaten all well together; and boile it. Make a paste neither too soft nor too hard, if it is too soft, you may mix with it some flowre of sugar for to harden it. When it is well proportioned , put it into moules of white tinne made for the purpose and then bake them half in the oven. When they are half baked, take them out, and moisten them at the top with the yolks of eggs ; after that, put them in the oven again for to make an end of baking. When they are so baked that they are not too much burned, nor too soft, take them out, and set them in a place which is neither too cool nor too dry.

1653. Francois Pierre La Varenne. Englished by L.D.G The French Cook.  intro by Philip and Mary Hyman. Southover Press: 2001. p. 246.

The little tin molds fascinate me, in part because it’s about 100 years earlier then I thought I’d ever see them. I should have been paying more attention to sweetmeats! The end-note of a place “neither too cool nor too dry”……is almost as good as “not too much burned, nor too soft”.

Savoy can be one of several things.

Savoy palace - drawing of 1650

Savoy palace – drawing of 1650

Savoy Record Company NOT the savoy of the 17th century bisket!

Savoy Record Company NOT the savoy of the 17th century bisket!

 

 

Arnotts Biscuit  - they carry a Savoy biscuit in the 20th century

Arnotts Biscuit – they carry a Savoy biscuit in the 20th century

The modern day Savoy biscuit is a cracker sold in parts of Australia. It’s by the same company that makes Tim-Tams. Among others.

Tim-Tams....mmmm

Tim-Tams….mmmm

There’s still Prince bisket and Italian bisket, and a more careful look at bisket bread ahead in the bisket trail.

Why did we change the spelling of bisket? Why don’t we change it back?

 

 

 

 

English Bisket

October 11th, 2013 by KM Wall

All good things start at home, so let’s take a look at the international biskets of 17th century England, by looking at the one that is called

ENGLISH BISKET

btw, ‘BISKET” is by far and by large the most common spelling of the biscuit in the 17th century. In England. Results may vary by country.

 

 

To make English Bisket.

Take eight new layd egges, taking away the whites of foure of them, beate the eight yoalks and the other foure whites in a faire bowle the fourth parte of an houre, then take a pound of fine flower being dryed in an earthen pot closed covered : then take eight ounces of hard sugar beaten fine, and beat them into your egges with the end of a rowling pin, and beat it so very hard for the space of an houre, but by no meanes let it stand still, always beating it, then haue an Ouen as hot as for manchet ready cleane, hauing some saucers of flate plates, or little tine Coffins buttered over with a feather as thinne as you can strike it over, then put into yoru forsaid paste Coliander-seed, sweet Fennel seede, and Caroway seed, of each the fourth part of an ounce, when you have beaten these into your paste, put it into your saucers, and set them presently into the Ouen, and when you see it rise vp and look white, you may take down your lid, and in a quarter of an houre they will be made, then box it vp and keep it all the yeare.

1621. John Murrell. The Delightful daily exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen. Falconwood Press: 1990. p. 3.

A whole lot of beating going on - these need to be light and frothy. If only they had a Kitchen-Aid.

A whole lot of beating going on – these need to be light and frothy. If only they had a Kitchen-Aid.

Coriander seed - we call the leafy part cilantro or even Chinese parsley

Coriander seed – we call the leafy part cilantro or even Chinese parsley

 

 

Fennel seed - all together this is going to have a very liquorice taste

Fennel seed – all together this is going to have a very liquorice taste

 

Our old friend caraway, up close,. You might remember him as Kimmel....

Our old friend caraway, up close. You might remember him as Kimmel….

To make French Bread, English style

October 3rd, 2013 by KM Wall
Evelyn's motto written in a book he bought in Paris in 1651. Keep what is better

Evelyn’s motto written in a book he bought in Paris in 1651. Keep what is better

343. To make french Bread.

Take a gallon of flowr take 3 whites of Eggs beat them well and mix them with a pint of good Ale yest, take some new milke and a litle water set it over the fire put in a qr of a pound of butter make it hott enough to melt it, mix it with the Eggs and yest, then mix up the bread as slight as for a cake let it rise a qr of an houre lay the loaves upon flowred paper what bignesse you please the oven must be well heat an hour bakes them.”

- Driver, Christopher, ed. John Evelyn, Cook. Prospect Books: Devon, 1981. p. 177.

Egg white and milk to enrich, and melted butter, and on paper instead of in dishes like the other French bread in Evelyn’s notebooks

 

John Evelyn - 1651 - engraving by Robert Nanteuil

John Evelyn – 1651 – engraving by Robert Nanteuil

TO MAKE FRENCH BREAD

Take a gallon of flowre & put to it a little salt, a pinte of ale yeast, a quart of new milke heated, but not too hot. poure these inot ye flowre, & mix them with one hand, you must not knead it at all. yn heat a woolen cloth & pour your paste on it, flower ye cloth, & lap it up. yn make it into a dosin of loves & set ym on a peele, flowred, & lay a warm wollen cloth on ym. yr oven must be allmoste hot when you mix the bread. heat yr oven pritty hot, & chip yr bread when it comes out.”    – Karen Hess, ed. Martha Washington’s Book of Cookery. p. 113. (later 17th century)

Pavillon_royal_de_la_France

 

 

French Bread, English style in the 17th century

September 30th, 2013 by KM Wall

If I say French bread, you probably think:

Baguette

 

Baguettes

Baguettes

BUT…

There’s more then one French bread, and baguette is a relative newcomer in the French Bread world.

Boule - which rather resembles Englsih 17th century household bread

Boule – a more traditional loaf which rather resembles English 17th century household bread

Pain de campagne - french country bread, a mix of grains, with some sour leaven and ranging in size from 4-12 pounds. This whole description could have been lifted from Gervase Markham's  Cheate Bread

Pain de campagne – french country bread, a mix of grains, with some sour leaven and ranging in size from 4-12 pounds. This whole description could have been lifted from Gervase Markham’s Cheate Bread

The more traditional French breads are like 17th century English breads in that they have four essential ingredients:

Flour (sometimes spelled flower, as in ‘the flower of the grain’)

Flours

Flours

Water

 

Water in it's three forms - liquid is the form used in bread making

Water in it’s three forms – liquid is the form used in bread making

Leaven

Jan Luyken etching - Parable of the leaven

Jan Luyken etching – Parable of the leaven

 

Luke 13:20-21

1599 Geneva Bible (GNV)

20  And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God?

21 It is like leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three pecks of flour, till all was leavened.

and Salt

salt production, 1670 in Halle or Halle an der Saale a city in the German state Saxony-Anhalt.

Salt production, 1670 in Halle or Halle an der Saale a city in the German state Saxony-Anhalt.

But 17th century English recipes for French bread have something more

Milk

and  Eggs or Butter.

French bread, for our 17th century English men, was an enriched bread.

Hear France say, “Oh, la, la!”

269. To make French Bread.

Take 3 qrts of fine flower two Eggs a litle salt halfe a pint of Ale yest and a halfe a pint of milk a litle warme put all these together and work them up to a dough, then put them into litle dishes and let them rise halfe an houre, after bake them this quantity will make on Dozen and halfe of loaves.”

-         Driver, Christopher, ed. John Evelyn, Cook. Prospect Books: Devon, 1981. p. 149.

 

National Apple Dumpling Day

September 18th, 2013 by KM Wall

was September 17th, and apple dumpling were in my dreams. And dumplings in general.

In almost every internet blurb about dumplings or apple dumplings was

Apple dumplings are an ancient British food, described in print from the 17th Century. They were even more popular in the American colonies and Early American period because apples grew well here, dumplings can be made from dried apples as well, and vast boiling pots were the easiest form of cooking to tend and add to in the hearth cooking days.

This is a copy and paste sort of way of tossing some ‘history’ in without doing much heavy lifting. Sigh. and blah blah blah.

Now, since 17th food stuff in print is my bread and butter, as it were,  I know that dumpling recipes are few and far between. There are a few more  dumpling references, indicating that dumplings are the sort of thing that isn’t  likely to find it’s way into a book of cookery, like Capon in the French Fashion or Oxfordshire cakes , because dumplings  are, like their lowly sounding name, common and ordinary fare for the common and ordinary sort.  But there are some references and recipes…..

Very modern (and lovely) apple dumplings - worth having a their own day!

Very modern (and lovely) apple dumplings – worth having a their own day!

I would like to say right here, right now, that I haven’t properly researched dumplings – this is rather random information that a day of looking at apple dumpling images has led me to.

This is the earliest 17th century recipe for dumplings that I found (I haven’t referenced the earlier material). It was in the same section as paste for pies.

To make Paste for Dumplins.

Season your flower with Pepper, Salt, and Yest, let your water be more then warm, then make them up like Manchets, but them be somewhat little, then put them into your water when it boyleth, and let them boil an hour, then butter them.

1653. W. I.  A True Gentlewomans Delight. Falconwood Press: 1991. p. 43.

Essentially, it sounds like a plain dumplings that would be great with chicken….. . Easy, filling, and but no apples.

Chicken and dumplings - or dumplins.....

Chicken and dumplings – or dumplins…..

But, wait, there’s another dumpling recipe, and  it’s a little fancier…..

 

To make a Dumplin.

Take a pint of Cream and boyl it with a blade of Mace;  then take twelve spoonfuls of grated bread, five spoonfuls of flower;  then take six yolks of Eggs and five whites;  beat them very well with two spoonfuls of Rosewater and as much fair water, season it with sugar, Nutmeg and salt, mingle them altogether with the Cream, tye it in a cloth, and when your water boyles, put it in and boyl it one hour and half, and when it is enough, serve it in with Rosewater, butter and sugar.

1664. Hannah Wolley. The Cooks Guide. p. 34-5.

Still no apples, but this is richer, nicer, sweeter…..and it’s a dumplin in tied up in a cloth. Dumplin is a word we shouldn’t have shucked.

So what’s the difference between this dumplin and a bag pudding?

 

To boil a Pudding which is uncommonly good.

Take a pond and [a] half of Wheat-flour, three-quarter pond of Currants washed clean, a half pond Kidney-suet, cut it very small, 3 Eggs, on and half Nutmegs, grated fine, a little Salt, mix it with a little sweet Milk so dry that one kneads it like a Bread and tie it in a clean cloth rather close and throw it into a pot with boiling water and let it boil for two hours, then it is done.

Peter Rose, trans. The Sensible Cook. p.79.

This pudding IS uncommonly good. Because The Sensible Cook is a translation of a Dutch cookbook, among our Pilgrim selves we sometimes refer to this a a Dutch Pudding.  But the difference between the dumplin and the bag pudding……too close to call.

If you’d like to see this pudding up close and in person, join us this Saturday afternoon. This pudding is one of the dishes scheduled to be on the table for the Bride-ale feasting.  I should have photos after that to share.

But apples, where are the apples?

 

Another apple dumpling

Another apple dumpling

 

To make Apple pufs.

Take a Pomewater or any other Apple that is not hard, or harsh in taste: mince it small with a dozen or twenty Razins of the Sunne: wet the Apples in two Egges, beat them all together with the back of a Knife or Spoone. Season them with Nutmeg, Rosewater, Sugar, and Ginger: drop them into a Frying-pan with a Spoone, fry them like Egges, wring iuyce of an Orenge, or Lemmon, and serve them.

1615. John Murrell. A New Booke of Cookerie. Falconwood press: 1989. p. 21.

Not a dumpling, but very good and easy…..rosewater is a great enhancer of apple flavor, and the squeeze of lemon or orange juice (iuyce)  – genius.

 

Apple Dumplng Gang- the Movie

Apple Dumpling Gang- the Movie – looking for apple dumplings throughout history????

 

 

Just another Manchet Monday

September 16th, 2013 by KM Wall

Manchets are regulated by the Books of Assizes, which means the price is set, but the size varies according to the price of wheat.That is, when they are made and sold by members of the Baker’s Guild in bake shops.

But manchets are also are being made in individual households. Some of the recipes for manchets are attributed to specific ladies. So there is a range of what manchet can mean when it’s made  outside of the Bakers Shops.

The making of manchets after my Ladie Graies use.
Take two peckes of fine flower, which must be twise boulted, if you wil haue your manchet verie faire: The lay it in a place where you doe use to lay dowe for your bread, and make a litle hole in it, and take a quart of faire water blood warme, and put in that water as much leaven as a crab, or a pretie big apple, and as much white salt as will fill an Egshell, and all to breake your leuen in the water, and put into your flower halfe a pinte of good Ale yest, and so stir this liquor among a litle of your flower, so that you must make it but thin at the first meeting, and then cover it with flower, and if it be in the winter, ye must keepe it verie warm, and iin summer it shall not need so much heate, for in the Winter it will not rise without warmeth. Thus let it lie two howers and a halfe: then at the second opening take more liquor as ye thinke will serue to wet al the flower. Then put in a pinte and a halfe of good yest, and so all to breake it in short pieces, after yee have well laboured it, and wrought it fiue or sixe tymes, so that yee bee sure it is throughlie mingled together, so continue labouring it, till it come to a smooth paste, and be well ware at the second opening that yee put not in too much liquor sodenlie, for then it will run, and if ye take a litle it will be stiffe, and after the second working it must lie a good quarter of hower, and keep it warme: then take it up to the moulding board, and with as much speede as is possible to be made, mould it up, and set it into the Oven, of one pecke of flower ye may make ten caste of Manchets faire and good.”
- 1594. The good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kichin. London fasc ed. pp. 51-2.

 

NOTES:

  • Great details in this version, especially of measurements
  • Two pecks is half a bushel – this is still making quite a bit of bread
  • Twice bolting – or sifting – would make the flour fair because more of the darker germ and husk would have been removed. The whiter the flour, the fairer the bread.
  • dowe = dough
  • leaven as much as a crab – which I believe in this case is a crab apple, because apple are the next measure.
  • European crabapples

    European crabapples

  • as much salt as will fill an egg shell – that’s still fairly salt-free compared to modern breads
  • Eggshell

    Eggshell

  • Notice that the leaven seems to be something somewhat solid (perhaps a piece of sourdough) and there is also ale-yeast,which has a liquid measure
  • The section about keeping it covered in Winter so it will rise make this sound like a 17th century ‘quick’ bread – you want a fast rising, no long slow rise – and therefore a very different flavour profile.
  • More yeast, and lots of kneading. This is going to make a firm crumb – none of this big, irregular holes of the modern artisan  – this is bread that has been touched – a lot – by human hands.
  • Biscuit brake

    Biscuit brake -another tool to help really,really knead your bread. Or you can have your apprentices tread the dough with their bare feet….

  • The moulding board is not a nasty, mildewy place, but rather where the loaves are moulded -or shaped . Lady Graie is have you go tout suit on this; no second rising, get them into shape and pop them into the oven.
  • I’m still unclear how the math works out for year. If one peck of flour  makes 10 caste of Manchets fair and good, the two pecks here should make 20 caste, so how many loaves in a caste?
  • More mysteries…
This is definitely a white bread...but is it a manchet - or whatever the Dutch equivalent would be

This is definitely a white bread…but is it a manchet ? – or whatever the Dutch equivalent would be – noticed how the loaf kissed the one beside it in the oven

 

To bake Venison to eat colde

August 28th, 2013 by KM Wall

If  you’ve got more then one deer  …

waittaminute – If you’ve got EVEN one deer, it’s probably more deer then you can eat all at once. Bake some to eat hot, and while you’re eating that, bake some more to save for later and eat cold.

Venison pie recipes are divided between the hot and the cold, the roe deer and the fallow deer.

All of these recipes come from the 1591  A.W. A Book of Cookrye, p. 21.

 

To bake Venison to eat colde.

Take Venison and cut it as the graine goeth, and cut it in quantity as ye wil have your Pasties, and perboile it in faire water, then take Lard and cut it in length of your flesh, and therwith lard it as thicke as you can, so that one peece of the Larde touch not an other.  Then take all manner of spices, salt, and Vinagre, that doon, put it into brown paste and bake it.

Robert May  - red deer

Robert May – red deer pie

To bake Venison of red Deere.

Laye it in water, and then wash it very clean out of the water, if it be clean draw it with Larde, then take meale and sift it, and take faire licour and let it boile, & make your paste with that, then take Beefe suet, mince it and beate it, drive out your paste very thick, close it and let it bake six houres when it is half baked, take Cloves & mace and Vinagre, and so boile them togither, put them into your redde Deere, at a little hole made for that purpose.  And when you have so doon, stop the hole with some of the same dough, and then set it in againe untill it be inough.

Another way to refer to red deer is by the name roe deer. The boys are therefore Roebucks.

Roe buck fro Topsell's History of Four-footed Beasts

Roe buck from Topsell’s History of Four-footed Beasts

Roes

Roes

To bake Venison of Fallow Deere.

Lay it in water and wash it very clean, then perboile it, if it be of the side, raise the skin of it: if it be of the haunch, presse it: season it with pepper and salt, take good store of Dre Suet, and mince it very fine, when you have minced it, beat it, then take Flower, butter and Egges and make your paste stiffe, then drive it out, and then put in your suet and Venison and close it, then take the yolk of an egge and a little beere, and wet it over, and let it bake foure houres, and then serve it in.

Dre suet is a best guess….Dry suet makes little sense – ‘your’ suet isn’t really better – the point is – add some fat! A good store! and mince it fine, very fine, very fine indeed!

Fallow deer - buck

Fallow deer – buck

Fallow Deer fro Topsells

Fallow Deer from Topsell

 

 

To Make a Foule Brauth

August 19th, 2013 by KM Wall

 

Take a Large foule & cut it in lems, & put it in a gallon of water, a pound or two of a Crage of Vell, a bunch of sweet earbes, & some Black pepper 7 mace. Let it boyle gentely 4 or 5 hours till it is all boyle’d to peeces. Then, straine it through a seve; then put in 2 spoonfulls of varmagely or saggo, sume Blanched sallerey & lettes cut in; if it is not theeck enough put in a little butter & flower Braded. Let it boyl up a lettle & then dish it up; some put in a Role Sliced; you must put in now Time; but a bay Lefe or 2 gives it a prettey flaver.

- The Receipt Book of Lady Ann Blencowe (1695). Christina Stapley, Heartease Books, (UK), 2004. p. 82.

  • large fowl = an old hen or old rooster
    Fowl

    Fowl

    Not this sort of Fowl

    Not this sort of Fowl

     

  • lems -???
  • crage of veall
  • earbes = herbs
  • seve = sieve
  • varmagely = vermicelli – that’s right, the little macaronis!

    Pasta -that's the paste....

    Pasta -that’s the paste….

  • sago =
  • saggo =???

    Pearl sago

    Pearl sago

  • ‘sume Blanched sallery & lettes’ -  some blanched celery and lettuce – celery makes a comeback at the end of the 17th century – wild celery or smallage is much more common in the 16th and 17th century

    Smallege

    Smallege

  • thicken with flour and butter – shades of an emerging trend
  • Role sliced is a sliced roll – a little manchet would be nice…..
  • Time (thyme) and there’s nothing like a bay leaf for a pretty flavor.

It is Sickness and Health Week in the 1627 Village. How balanced are your humours?

Fowl Broath piewise is (more or less)….

To bake Chickens with Damsons.

Take your Chickens, drawe them and wash them, then breake their bones, and lay them in a platter, then take foure handfuls of fine flower, and lay it on a faire boord, put thereto twelve yolks of Egs, a dish of butter, and a litle Saffron: mingle them altogether, & make your paste therewith. Then make sixe coffins, and put in euery coffin a lumpe of butter of the bignesse of a Walnut: then season your sixe coffins with one spoonful of Cloues and Mace, two spoonfuls of Synamon, and one of Sugar, and a spoonefull of Salt. Then put your Chickens into your pies: then take Damisons and pare away the outward peele of them, and put twentie in euery of your pies, round about your chicken, then put into euerie of your coffins, a hand full of Corrans. Then close them vp, and put them into the Ouen, then let them be there three quarters of an houre.

1594, 1597. The good Huswifes handmaide for the Kitchin.

Damson plum

Damson plum

 

Can she make a cherry pie, Billy Boy?

August 13th, 2013 by KM Wall

Part the First:

On August 14 th in 1623 William Bradford married Alice Carpenter Southworth. Which means we actually have some documentation about what was being eaten on a specific day 390 years ago.

In a letter written by Emmanuel Altham to his brother Sir Edward Altham in September, 1623:

“Upon the occasion of the Governor’s marriage, since I came, Massasoit was sent for to the wedding, where came with him his wife, the queen, although he hath five wives. With him came four other kings and about six score men with their bows and arrows – where, when they came to our town, we saluted them with the shooting off of many muskets and training our men. And so all the bows and arrows was brought into the Governor’s house, and he brought the Governor three or four bucks and a turkey. And so we had very good pastime in seeing them dance, which is in such manner, with such a noise that you would wonder…
“And now to say somewhat of the great cheer we had at the Governor’s marriage. We had about twelve pasty venisons, besides others, pieces of roasted venison and other such good cheer in such quantity that I could wish you some of our share.

“For here we have the best grapes that ever you say – and the biggest, and divers sorts of plums and nuts which our business will not suffer us to look for.”

Sidney V. James, Jr., editor, Three Visitors to Early Plymouth, p. 29-30.

Note 1) Venison and TURKEY for the wedding of the Governor.

Note 2) Venison pasty is a great big venison pie.

To bake Red Deer.

abstract shapepot

Take a side of red deer, bone it and season it, then take out the back sinew and the skin, and lard the fillets or  back with great lard as big as your middle finger; being first seasoned with nutmeg, and pepper; then take four ounces of pepper, four ounces of nutmeg, and six ounces of salt, mix them well together, and season the side of venison; being well slashed with a knife in the inside for to make the seasoning enter; being seasoned, and a pie made according to these forms, put in some butter in the bottom of the pye, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, and a bay-leaf or two, lay on the flesh, season it, and coat it deep, then put on a few cloves, and good store of butter, close it up and bake it the space of eight or nine hours, but first baste the pie with six or seven eggs, beaten well together; being baked and cold fill it up with good sweet clarified butter.

Take for a side or half hanch of red deer, half a bushel of rye meal, being coursly searsed, and make it up very stiff with boiling water only.

If you bake it to eat hot, give it but half the seasoning, and liquor it with claret-wine, and good butter.

Robert May, The Accomplist Cook

The Alternate title to this section : The Bucks stopped here.

Part the second:

 The Cherry pie song, beside asking great questions of a Billy Boy, is from the early 20th century, so while a great folk song, wasn’t sung in 1623 or 1627 or any other year that  Billy, I mean WILLIAM  Bradford was alive. And if it weren’t for the cherry trees fruiting like crazy in the 1627 Village, perhaps I wouldn’t  be so cherry zonked.

220px-Prunus_avium_fruit

This is the sort of cherry tree we have – a wild, or bird cherry

These two little dutch girls have baskets of the the cherries more common in Europe and to us1629.

These two little dutch girls have baskets of the the cherries more common in Europe and to us1629.

 

 A Cherry Pye.

Bruise a pound of Cherries, and stamp them, and boyle the sirrup with Sugar. Then take the stones out of two pound: bake then in a set Coffin: Ice them, and serve them hot to the boord.

- 1630. John Murrell. A New Book of Cookerie. Stuart Press: 1993. as Murrell’s Two Books of Cookery & Carving, Vol. 1, p. 17.

Clara Peters Still Life with Cheeses (and might I add, cherries?)

Clara Peters Still Life with Cheeses, Artichokes, and Cherries. c. 1625

 

Louise Moillon Cherries and melon 1633

Louise Moillon Cherries and melon 1633

 

 

 

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