Tagged ‘bake’

Muster day Dude Food

October 27th, 2013 by KM Wall

On Friday, certain housewives were preparing….

 

1672 – John Josslyn “Cran Berry or Bear Berry…a small trayling plant that grows in Salt Marshes, that are over-grown with moss;…the Berries …red, and as big as a Cherry; some perfectly round, others Oval, all of them hollow, of a sower astringent taste; they are ripe in August and September…They are excellent against the Scurvy…They are also good to allay the fervour of hot Diseases. The Indians and English use them much, boyling them with Sugar for Sauce to eat with their Meat; and it is a delicate Sauce, especially for roasted Mutton: Some make Tarts with them as with Goose Berries. (65-6)

Therefore

A Cheerrie Tart

Take the fairest Cherries you can get, and picke them cleane from leaves and stalkes; then spread out your coffin as for your Pippin-tart, (….then having rold out the coffin flat, and raysed up a small verdge of an inch, or more high...) and cover the bottome with Suger; then couer the Suger all over with Cherries, then cover those Cherries with Sugar, some sticks of Cinamon, and here and there a Cloue; then lay in more cherries, and so more Suger, Cinnamon and cloves, till the coffin be filled vp; then couvr it, and bake it in all points as the codling and pipping tart, and so serue it; and in the same manner you may make Tarts of Gooseberries, Strawberries, Rasberries, Bilberries, or any other Berrie whatsoever.

-         Markham, Gervase. Covntrey Contentments, or The English Huswife. London. 1623. p 106.

Cranberry tart

Cranberry tart

Cranberry tart, another

Cranberry tart, another

Cranberry tart, yet another

Cranberry tart, yet another

 

 

As well as beginning the roasting part of this…..

To make Fillets Gallentine

Take faire Pork, and take off the skin and roste it half ynough, then take it off the spit, and smite it in faire peeces, and caste it in a faire pot: then cut Onions, but not too small, and frie them in faire suet, and put them into the Porke, then take the broth of Beefe or Mutton, and put therto, and set them on the fyre, and put therto powder of Pepper, Saffron, Cloves and Mace, and let them boyle wel together.  Then take faire bread and Vinigar, & steep the bread with some of the same broth, straine it, and some bloud withall, or els Saunders, and colour it with that, and let all boyle together, then cast in a litle Saffron and salte, and then may you serve it in.-

Huswifes Handmaide.  f 43

Gallentine is a sauce made from sopped bread, spices and often blood.

Suet is fat, chiefly from beef, mutton

Saffron is an expensive (still!) spice that is warming and a distinctively yellow color.

Saunders was used to make things a red color.

Or, in other words:

Fillet galletine prep - the pork butt was half roasted and the skin removed; the onions are cut and ready to go

Fillet galletine prep, day 2  – the pork butt was half roasted and the skin removed; the onions are cut and ready to go

FILLETS GALLENTINE

chine of pork pepper

bread                    clove

onions                  mace

vinegar

Roast the chine until half done. Fry onions with a little pork fat.  Chop the pork into pieces and put in a pot with onions, some ground cloves, mace, pepper and salt. Put in enough water just to cover and bring all to a boil, cooking away much of the water.  Before serving, make the gallentine by take slices of bread and soaking them in vinegar with a little salt. Put in a pot or frying pan and add some of the cooking liquid to the bread and vinegar. Bring to a boil.  To serve place pork mixture in a bowl and pour over the gallentine..

 And then this morning…..

To Boyle a Rabbit with Hearbes on the French Fashion.

Fit your Rabbit for the boyling, and seeth it with a little Mutton broth, white Wine, and a peece of Mace: then take Lettuce, Spynage, Parsley, winter Savory, sweet Marioram : all these being pickt, and washt cleane, bruise them with the backe of a Ladle (for the bruising of the Herbes wil make the broth looke very pleasantly greene.) Thicken it with a crust of Manchet, being steeped in some of the broth, and a little sweet Butter therein. Seasono it with verges, and Pepper, and serve it to the Table upon Sippets. Garnish your Dish with Barberyes.

- Murrell, John. A Newe Booke of Cookerie. 1617. London: FW, p. 4.

Rabbit  boyled in the French Fashion

Rabbit boyled in the French Fashion

 

While someone else was….

To roast a Chine, Rib, Loin, Brisket, or Fillet of Beef.

Draw them with parsely, rosemary, tyme, sweet marjaoram, sage, winter savory, or lemon, or plain without any of them, fresh or salt, as you please; broach it, or spit it, roast it and baste it with butter; a good chine of beef will ask six hours roasting.

For the sauce take strait tops of rosemary, sage-leaves, picked parsley, tyme, and sweet marjoram; and strew them in wine vinegar, and the beef gravy; or otherways with gravy and juyce of oranges and lemons. Sometimes for change in saucers of vinegar and pepper.

-         May, Robert. The Accomplisht Cook. 1685 ed (Prospect Books), p. 113.

although it was porket ribs and not beef..

Roasting....

Roasting….

Ribs on spits

Ribs on spits

Mistress of the sauce for the roasting ribs

Mistress of the sauce for the roasting ribs

 

and yet another housewife was making….

 

The best Pancake.

To make the best Pancake, take two or three Egges, and breake them into a dish, and beate them well then adde unto them a pretty quantitie of faire running water, and beate all well together: then put in Cloves, Mace, Cinamon, and a Nutmeg, and season it with Salt: which done, make it thicke as you thinke good with fine Wheat flower: then frie the cakes as thin as may be with sweete Butter, or sweete Seame[1], and make them browne, and so serve them up with Sugar strowed upon them.  There be some which mix Pancakes with new Milke or Creame, but that makes them tough, cloying, and not so crispe, pleasant, and savorie as running water.

- 1618, Markham, Best ed. p. 66



[1] 1530    J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 269/1   Seme for to frye with, seyn de povrceau. 1691    J. Ray Coll. Eng. Words 131   Saime, which we pronounce sometimes Seame. It signifies not only Goose-grease, but in general any kind of Grease or Sewet or Oil, wherewith out Clothiers anoint‥their Wool.

 and then made pancakes even BETTER by….

To make Pancakes so crisp that you may set them upright.

Make a dozen or score of them in a little frying pan, no bigger then a Sawcer, & then boil them in Lard, and they will look as yellow as golde, beside the taste.

- 1615 Murrell, p. 30

There are no photos of the pancakes….but they were there, really!

A simple Salllet iof spinach (picked from Village Gardens!) also disappeared before it could be documented

A simple Salllet of spinach (picked from Village Gardens!) also disappeared before it could be documented

 

Wamblecropt!

Wamblecropt!

The Littlest Musketeer

The Littlest Musketeer

 

 

 

PIE-Anxiety!

October 24th, 2013 by KM Wall

Fashion has the September Issue, but Thanksgiving is all about the November Issues….the stories and angles that magazines think will sell/mark/brand the Thanksgiving holiday in any given year.

The marketing of today is the myth of tomorrow…..

Other then only the briefest mention of Thanksgivukkah

Thanksgivukkah is a pop-culture portmanteauneologism given to the convergence of the American holiday of Thanksgiving and the first day of the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah on Thursday, November 28, 2013 – wiki

Thanksgivokkah

The through line for 2013 seems to be:

PIE IS DIFFICULT.

PIE IS HARD.

PIE IS TRICKY.

Pi Pie

Pi Pie

And then they suggest all sorts of easy outs, like BUY PIE or make cake or have some one else bring it or…..

The real hangup, the sticking point, the detail that is the Devil, is the crust.

Butter v. Lard

Precise measure

Chilling.

Vodka even.

 

Don’t they know

Print

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pie is not difficult – pie is easy . Our Early Modern English Housewife made pies all the time.

Without measuring cups.

Without refrigerators.

Without dread or whining.

Often the crust preparation was referred to as ‘paste’. Paste is easy. Really.

So from now through Twelfth Night, Fridays are Pie Days  – each Friday a little lesson in making pie.

Except for this Friday, which is the feast of Crispin Crispinian, and I’ve been waiting all year to go once more into the breech, dear friends.

menurkey

 

In for a Penny (Loaf)….

October 16th, 2013 by KM Wall

….in for a pound.

In celebration of National B read Day, a smidgeon more on Maize, Indian corn and bread in New England before there were mills, corn bread being the most common sort of bread, maize being the most common sort of corn.

“It [maize] is light of digestion, and the English make a kind of Loblolly of it, to eat with Milk, which they call Sampe ; they beat it in a Morter, and sift the flower out of it; the remainder they call Homminey, which they put in a Pot of two or three Gallons, with Water, and boyl it upon a gentle Fire till it be like Hasty Pudden; they put of this into Milk, and so eat it. Their Bread also they make of the Homminey so boiled, and mix their Flower with it, cast it into a deep Bason in which they form the loaf, and then turn it out upon the Peel, and presently put it into the Oven before it spreads abroad; the Flower makes excellent Puddens.”

- Josslyn, John. New Englands rarities. 1672. Mass. Historical Society, 1972, p. 52.

And now with pictures….Kathy Devlin, Colonial Foodways Artisan, took these photos in the modern kitchen making the back-up bread.

It [maize] is light of digestion, and the English make a kind of Loblolly of it, to eat with Milk, which they call Sampe ; they beat it in a Morter, and sift the flower out of it; 

Maize

Maize – before it is beaten

and sift the flower out of it;

the remainder they call Homminey, which they put in a Pot of two or three Gallons, with Water, and boyl it upon a gentle Fire till it be like Hasty Pudden;

Ground corn, flour gone, in a pot with water, waiting to boil...

Ground corn, flour gone, in a pot with water, waiting to boil…

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Boiling

Like Hasty Pudden

Like Hasty Pudden

 

Their Bread also they make of the Homminey so boiled, and mix their Flower with it,

Flour and cooked corn groats together - wait till it isn't hot enough to burn you....

Flour and cooked corn groats together – wait till it isn’t hot enough to burn you….

cast it into a deep Bason in which they form the loaf,

A  bowl - size bases on the the size of the oven and the size we'd like of the finished loaf....

A basin (or bowl) – size based on the the size of the oven and the size we’d like  the finished loaf….

Flour, cooked samp or homminey together in a bowl.....

Flour, cooked samp or homminey together in a bowl…..

and then turn it out upon the Peel,

Not exactly a peel, rather the silpat sheet it'll be baked on in the modern oven

Not exactly a peel, rather the silpat sheet it’ll be baked on in the modern oven

and presently put it into the Oven before it spreads abroad

Bread in the modern oven

Bread in the modern oven

The finished loaves

The finished loaves

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lagniappe

October 15th, 2013 by KM Wall

something a little extra re: Italian Puddings…..

Richard Sax

Richard Sax

All the while, while  dipping in Italian  Pudding I  kept  thinking I was smelling  chocolate. Serious chocolate.

There is no chocolate mentioned in ANY of the 17th century English cookbooks I was searching through  AT ALL …..and then I remembered.

In Richard Sax’s Classic Home Desserts – which is a totally great cookbook, with wonderful recipes, great photos and stories and histories – there is an Italian Bread Pudding.

It is baked (or bakte).

The bread is cut into cubes. (Are you getting chills yet?)

In with the eggs and cream, there is also  chocolate.

Taste and memory, working together again.

Classic Home Dessert - Richard Sax

Classic Home Desserts – Richard Sax

Budino Nero (Italian Chocolate Bread Pudding)

First published in 1994, the book is still in print, so to avoid copyright issues, let me tell you that basically it’s the same Italian Pudding that John Murrell and W.I make, with equal amounts of semi-sweet chocolate and cubed bread by weight. That is, 3 ounces of bread (which is about 4 cups cubed) should have 3 ounces of chopped semi-sweet chocolate . Melt the chocolate in the cream or milk, before beating in the eggs (let it cool a little, don’t be impatient) and then gently add the cubed bread. Put it into a greased dish, bake  – not too hot, at 350° for about 1/2 an hour – don’t bake it too long – it should be a little wobbly, but it will firm up as it cools. You can add some sugar in, or wait to scrape – or sprinkle  -some on top.

Cacao - from John Gerard, The Herbal

Cacao – and other odd bobs of things – from Johnson on Gerard,The Herbal, 1633.

Chocolate in early 17th century had some PR issues. The name – Cacao -say it aloud, you know what it means, – means, well, sh_t in Spanish, and the same for Englishmen. I believe it was the Dutch who changed it to “Cocao”. What a difference one little letter makes. The rest is, as we say, HISTORY.

A giant Budina Nero – made in the large size Pyrex bowl was

The big one - and it was also a green one

The big one – and it was also a green one

 the BEST Birthday Cake EVER.

For the life of me I can’t remember which birthday, but it probably ended with a zero or a five….and the pudding was made by assorted Foodways deities  was a surprise and a delight. And a taste memory extraordinaire.

 

English Bisket

October 11th, 2013 by KM Wall

All good things start at home, so let’s take a look at the international biskets of 17th century England, by looking at the one that is called

ENGLISH BISKET

btw, ‘BISKET” is by far and by large the most common spelling of the biscuit in the 17th century. In England. Results may vary by country.

 

 

To make English Bisket.

Take eight new layd egges, taking away the whites of foure of them, beate the eight yoalks and the other foure whites in a faire bowle the fourth parte of an houre, then take a pound of fine flower being dryed in an earthen pot closed covered : then take eight ounces of hard sugar beaten fine, and beat them into your egges with the end of a rowling pin, and beat it so very hard for the space of an houre, but by no meanes let it stand still, always beating it, then haue an Ouen as hot as for manchet ready cleane, hauing some saucers of flate plates, or little tine Coffins buttered over with a feather as thinne as you can strike it over, then put into yoru forsaid paste Coliander-seed, sweet Fennel seede, and Caroway seed, of each the fourth part of an ounce, when you have beaten these into your paste, put it into your saucers, and set them presently into the Ouen, and when you see it rise vp and look white, you may take down your lid, and in a quarter of an houre they will be made, then box it vp and keep it all the yeare.

1621. John Murrell. The Delightful daily exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen. Falconwood Press: 1990. p. 3.

A whole lot of beating going on - these need to be light and frothy. If only they had a Kitchen-Aid.

A whole lot of beating going on – these need to be light and frothy. If only they had a Kitchen-Aid.

Coriander seed - we call the leafy part cilantro or even Chinese parsley

Coriander seed – we call the leafy part cilantro or even Chinese parsley

 

 

Fennel seed - all together this is going to have a very liquorice taste

Fennel seed – all together this is going to have a very liquorice taste

 

Our old friend caraway, up close,. You might remember him as Kimmel....

Our old friend caraway, up close. You might remember him as Kimmel….

French Bread, English style in the 17th century

September 30th, 2013 by KM Wall

If I say French bread, you probably think:

Baguette

 

Baguettes

Baguettes

BUT…

There’s more then one French bread, and baguette is a relative newcomer in the French Bread world.

Boule - which rather resembles Englsih 17th century household bread

Boule – a more traditional loaf which rather resembles English 17th century household bread

Pain de campagne - french country bread, a mix of grains, with some sour leaven and ranging in size from 4-12 pounds. This whole description could have been lifted from Gervase Markham's  Cheate Bread

Pain de campagne – french country bread, a mix of grains, with some sour leaven and ranging in size from 4-12 pounds. This whole description could have been lifted from Gervase Markham’s Cheate Bread

The more traditional French breads are like 17th century English breads in that they have four essential ingredients:

Flour (sometimes spelled flower, as in ‘the flower of the grain’)

Flours

Flours

Water

 

Water in it's three forms - liquid is the form used in bread making

Water in it’s three forms – liquid is the form used in bread making

Leaven

Jan Luyken etching - Parable of the leaven

Jan Luyken etching – Parable of the leaven

 

Luke 13:20-21

1599 Geneva Bible (GNV)

20  And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God?

21 It is like leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three pecks of flour, till all was leavened.

and Salt

salt production, 1670 in Halle or Halle an der Saale a city in the German state Saxony-Anhalt.

Salt production, 1670 in Halle or Halle an der Saale a city in the German state Saxony-Anhalt.

But 17th century English recipes for French bread have something more

Milk

and  Eggs or Butter.

French bread, for our 17th century English men, was an enriched bread.

Hear France say, “Oh, la, la!”

269. To make French Bread.

Take 3 qrts of fine flower two Eggs a litle salt halfe a pint of Ale yest and a halfe a pint of milk a litle warme put all these together and work them up to a dough, then put them into litle dishes and let them rise halfe an houre, after bake them this quantity will make on Dozen and halfe of loaves.”

-         Driver, Christopher, ed. John Evelyn, Cook. Prospect Books: Devon, 1981. p. 149.

 

Yet Another Manchet Monday

September 23rd, 2013 by KM Wall

Lady of Arundels manchet.

Take a bushel of fine Wheat-flower, twenty eggs, three pound of Fresh butter, then take as much Salt and Barme, as to the ordinary Manchet, temper it together with new Milk prettie hot, then let it lie the space of half an hour to rise, so you may work it up into bread, and bake it, let not your Oven be too hot.

- 1653. A True Gentlewomans Delight. W.I, Gent. London. (Falconwood Press:1991.(trans) p. 54

Very interesting bread.

  1.  Butter, milk and eggs make this a very different sort of manchet. This really falls into the sweetbreads category.
  2. And then there’s the Arundel family. Jjust who is Lady Arundel? What’s her  backstory?
Arundel Castle in West Sussex

Arundel Castle in West Sussex

The castle goes back to 1067….as does the earldom title.

The town of Arundel

The town of Arundel – you can see the castle up on the hill

The interesting  thing about the title is that succession issues get a little mired – in the 17th century, but of course!

22nd Earl of Arundel

22nd Earl of Arundel – Henry Howard

 

I think this might be the husband of the Lady the recipe came from. She was Lady Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Esme Stuart,Third Duke of Lennox. There is no image of her that I could find. They marry in 1626 and have 9 children. BTW, there is a portrait or two of Henry Howard’s  godmother:

Anne of Denmark, also married to James I and VI, King of England and Scotland, &cetera

Anne of Denmark, also married to James I and VI, King of England and Scotland, & cetera

But this is one of things were timing is EVERYTHING. Henry Howard, 22nd Earl  of Arundel dies 17 April 1652. So, has our mysterious gentleman, W. I. already moved on to the next Lady Arundel or ….

The story of these offspring would make a GREAT mini-series for Masterpiece Theater, once they run through the Downton Abbey crew. Insanity, Roman Catholic Cardinals…..Really – you can’t make this stuff up.

AND

Lady Arundel’s Manchet has it’s own Wikipedia entry.

Which doesn’t include the recipe.

What the Wiki entry misses is how different from other period manchets this bread is. Which you already know. But also, how much this manchet is like 17th century English French Bread.

 

Bread crumb trails, part two

September 20th, 2013 by KM Wall

Bread in early modern English resources.

Sources aren’t nearly enough to make an exhibit of daily life. Even if everyday, real-time Plimoth Colony 1627 weren’t the exhibit, all those sources need context. That’s the job of resources.

So,  while  any of the cookbooks that we draw from is a primary source of 17th century English foodways,

BUT since  not a single one of them, not even in copied out commonplace book form, has been found in connection with Plymouth, they are resources for our 162 7 exhibit.

They are the the thing that fills out the pieces of the picture that we have, but they’re done in a mutable way, as if food could be anything else. The Plymouth Colony Primary Sources are the Alpha and the Omega. All resources have to fit within the parameters of the known, and are to be used to flesh out  the Plymouth sources. Not instead of the Plymouth sources, not in contradiction of the Plymouth sources, but to help connect the dots.

Soooooo, I Googled “17th century English Bread images and these are the resources that appeared:

Cover of Elizabeth David's English Bread and Yeast Cookery - very literal, Google!

Cover of Elizabeth David’s English Bread and Yeast Cookery – very literal, Google!and Excellent choice – great resource!!!!!

 

Street Singer - he's Italian and looks a little 18th century....

Street Singer – he’s Italian and looks a little 18th century….he’s going to be hard to place in 1627 Plimoth….wait, I think he was mislabeled – he might be Parisian….either way, he won’t be in Plimoth Colony anytime soon.

 

 

 

This also appears under the heading 17th century English Breads....this is why resources need some vetting

This also appears under the heading 17th century English Breads….this is why resources need some vetting, sometimes some SERIOUS vetting

I'm not sure what or how this has anything to so with Englsih breads....I rather like the coat, though

I’m not sure why or how or who or what  this has anything to do with English breads….I  like the coat, though. In fact, the entire ensemble is rather fetching.

 

 

 

Simon Luttichuys - who (I think, this is a new one for me) appears to be a painter, born 1620 in London....nice

Simon Luttichuys – who (I think, as this is a new one for me) appears to be a painter, born 1610 in London….nice, now  I need to do more digging about him. The painting is a good resource.

A vopy of a bread recipe - really a formula - from Sir Hugh Plat that was on William Rubel's website - Nice catch

A copy of a bread recipe – really a formula – from Sir Hugh Plat that was on William Rubel’s website – Nice catch, Google!

 

 

 

Just another Manchet Monday

September 16th, 2013 by KM Wall

Manchets are regulated by the Books of Assizes, which means the price is set, but the size varies according to the price of wheat.That is, when they are made and sold by members of the Baker’s Guild in bake shops.

But manchets are also are being made in individual households. Some of the recipes for manchets are attributed to specific ladies. So there is a range of what manchet can mean when it’s made  outside of the Bakers Shops.

The making of manchets after my Ladie Graies use.
Take two peckes of fine flower, which must be twise boulted, if you wil haue your manchet verie faire: The lay it in a place where you doe use to lay dowe for your bread, and make a litle hole in it, and take a quart of faire water blood warme, and put in that water as much leaven as a crab, or a pretie big apple, and as much white salt as will fill an Egshell, and all to breake your leuen in the water, and put into your flower halfe a pinte of good Ale yest, and so stir this liquor among a litle of your flower, so that you must make it but thin at the first meeting, and then cover it with flower, and if it be in the winter, ye must keepe it verie warm, and iin summer it shall not need so much heate, for in the Winter it will not rise without warmeth. Thus let it lie two howers and a halfe: then at the second opening take more liquor as ye thinke will serue to wet al the flower. Then put in a pinte and a halfe of good yest, and so all to breake it in short pieces, after yee have well laboured it, and wrought it fiue or sixe tymes, so that yee bee sure it is throughlie mingled together, so continue labouring it, till it come to a smooth paste, and be well ware at the second opening that yee put not in too much liquor sodenlie, for then it will run, and if ye take a litle it will be stiffe, and after the second working it must lie a good quarter of hower, and keep it warme: then take it up to the moulding board, and with as much speede as is possible to be made, mould it up, and set it into the Oven, of one pecke of flower ye may make ten caste of Manchets faire and good.”
- 1594. The good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kichin. London fasc ed. pp. 51-2.

 

NOTES:

  • Great details in this version, especially of measurements
  • Two pecks is half a bushel – this is still making quite a bit of bread
  • Twice bolting – or sifting – would make the flour fair because more of the darker germ and husk would have been removed. The whiter the flour, the fairer the bread.
  • dowe = dough
  • leaven as much as a crab – which I believe in this case is a crab apple, because apple are the next measure.
  • European crabapples

    European crabapples

  • as much salt as will fill an egg shell – that’s still fairly salt-free compared to modern breads
  • Eggshell

    Eggshell

  • Notice that the leaven seems to be something somewhat solid (perhaps a piece of sourdough) and there is also ale-yeast,which has a liquid measure
  • The section about keeping it covered in Winter so it will rise make this sound like a 17th century ‘quick’ bread – you want a fast rising, no long slow rise – and therefore a very different flavour profile.
  • More yeast, and lots of kneading. This is going to make a firm crumb – none of this big, irregular holes of the modern artisan  – this is bread that has been touched – a lot – by human hands.
  • Biscuit brake

    Biscuit brake -another tool to help really,really knead your bread. Or you can have your apprentices tread the dough with their bare feet….

  • The moulding board is not a nasty, mildewy place, but rather where the loaves are moulded -or shaped . Lady Graie is have you go tout suit on this; no second rising, get them into shape and pop them into the oven.
  • I’m still unclear how the math works out for year. If one peck of flour  makes 10 caste of Manchets fair and good, the two pecks here should make 20 caste, so how many loaves in a caste?
  • More mysteries…
This is definitely a white bread...but is it a manchet - or whatever the Dutch equivalent would be

This is definitely a white bread…but is it a manchet ? – or whatever the Dutch equivalent would be – noticed how the loaf kissed the one beside it in the oven

 

Breads, or, Let Them Eat Cake

September 13th, 2013 by KM Wall

Bread. Seems simple enough. It’s bread. Everyone knows what it is, even when everyone knows something different.

For many now, bread is a wonder….or I should hope wonderful

Wonder Bread

Wonder Bread

A 17th century Englishman would have a hard time finding the bread in that package. There is some current bread that would seem more familiar to him:

220px-Pain_Poîlane-_Paris_15e

Pain Poilane – fancy French bread, now called artisan, in the 17th century called household, or daily, bread. Or just bread.

But according to the cookbooks there are whole categories of items that we no longer consider bread, that were, in no uncertain terms, called bread then.

 

Breads.

49 – To make red Ginger-bread, commonly called Leach-lumbar.
50 – To make white Ginger-bread.
51 – To make Italian Bisket.
52 – To make an excellent Bread called Ginetoes.
53 – To make Prince Bisket.
54 – To make French Macaroons.
55 – To make Naples Bisket.
56 – To make shell bread.
57 – To make Countesse cakes.
58 – To make fine Sugar cake.

1617. John Murrell. A Daily Exercise for Ladies and Gentlewoman. Falconwood Press: 1990. table of contents.

Breads.

1 – To make French Mackroones of the best fashion.

2 – To make greene Mackroones.
3 – To make letters and knots in Almonds.
4 – To make Shrewsbery Cakes.
5 – To make English Bisket.
6 – To make Iambles.
7 – To make french Biskets,
8 – To make Bread called Italian crust.
9 – To make puff depine.
10 – To make Cracknels.

1621. John Murrell. A delightful daily exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen. Falconwood Press: 1990. table of contents

Gingerbread??? Interesting addition to the bread world…..the red gingerbread calls for a mold.

Gingerbread mold from the Stuart era

Gingerbread mold from the Stuart era

French Macaroons, the best fashion of  French Mackroones and greene Mackroones…..all breads?

Macaron, French and green

Macaron, French and green – we still make them that way!

At least shell bread is a bread….or is it?

To make shell bread.

Beate a quarter of a pound of double refined Sugar, cearse it with two or three spoonefulls of the finest, the youlkes of three new laid egs, and the white of one, beate all this together in with two or three spoonefulls of sweete creame, a graine of muske, a thimble full of the powder of a dried Lemond, and a little Annise-seede beaten and cearsed, and a little Rose-water, then baste Muskle-shells with sweete butter, as thinne as you can lay it on with a feather, fill your shells with the batter and lay them on a gridiron or a lattise of wickers into the ouen, and bake them, and take them out of the shells, and ise them with Rose-water & Sugar. It is a delicate bread, some call it the Italian Mushle, if you keepe them any long time, then alwaies in wet weather put them in your ouen.

1617. John Murrell. A Daily Exercise for Ladies and Gentlewoman. Falconwood Press: 1990.

So this is bread MADE in shells – well, who ever heard of such a thing?

Is this recipe only a Remembrance of Things Past?

Madeleines de Commercy

Madeleines de Commercy – looks like shell bread to me.

 

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