Tagged ‘17th century recipe’

Sweet! Potato Pie

November 24th, 2013 by KM Wall
Potato illustration from John Gerard The Herbal

Potato illustration from John Gerard The Herbal

To make a Potato Pie.
Boyl your Spanish Potaoes (not overmuch) cut them forth in slices as thick as your thumb, season them with Nutmeg, Cinamon, Ginger, and Sugar; your Coffin being ready, put them in, over the bottom, add to them the Marrow of about three Marrow-bones, seasoned as aforesaid, a handful of stoned Raisons of the Sun, some quartred Dates, Orangado, Cittern, with Ringo-root sliced, put butter over it, and bake them: let their lear be a little Vinegar, Sack and Sugar, beaten up with the yolk of an Egg, and a little drawn Butter; when your Pie is enough, pour in, shake it together, scrape on Sugar, garnish it, and serve it up.
- 1661. William Rabisha. The Whole Body of Cookery, Dissected. London.

John Gerard with potato flowers in the frontispiece of The Herbal

John Gerard with potato flowers in the frontispiece of The Herbal

Now, about this pie……

Although sweet potato pie is much more of a mainstay in the South, but pies made from potatoes go back to the 17th century in England.

And not a marshmallow to be found.

  1. Boil the potatoes. Last winter, in the Hardcore Hearth Cooking Workshop, we boiled five pounds of sweet potatoes. Boil them whole so that they don’t get waterlogged. Drain, cool, and peel.
  2. Slice them as thick as tour thumb…I took this to mean in one inch slices – larger chunks versus smaller bits. There’s still some cooking to come, and you don’t want paste.
  3. Powder your spices – nutmeg, cinnamon, ginger, sugar – sounds an awful lot like pumpkin pie spice……
  4. Put the spices and sugared potato slices in a pastry lined dish, like this:
  5. Sweet potato, spices in pastry lined dish for pie - Debra Samuels  photo credit

    Sweet potato, spices in pastry lined dish for pie – Debra Samuels photo credit

  6. If you have marrow from marrow bones, add it now. If you do not have marrow, do not panic – add some generous dollops of butter.
  7. Add raisins of the sun without there stones (thank you seedless grapes that make seedless raisin!); quartered dates – it’s 5 pounds of potatoes, be generous.
  8. Orangeo, cittern and eringo root are probably not on your shelf…leave them out – a little grated orange rind or candied orange peel would not be amiss. Add a little more butter on the top to melt down   on the whole thing, put on the top crust and cut a vent in the center.
  9. Bake. Start at 450 and turn the oven down to 375 after 10 or 15 minutes (you know your oven better then I do). The top should be golden brown and the insides should smell GLORIOUS….but wait, we’re not done yet….this is the part that puts it over the top
  10. When the pie pan is cool enough to lift, beat and egg yolk with some sack wine, sugar, a little vinegar and drawn butter . Pour this lear into the vent hole, and shake it up . Another word for this is to shog it – sprinkle some sugar on the top, and serve.


Modern Sweet Potato Pie seems a little plain after the 17th century version...

Modern Sweet Potato Pie seems a little plain after the 17th century version…

Sweet Potato Pie - music to cook by?

Sweet Potato Pie – music to cook by?

Another group with an album Sweet Potato Pie

Another group with an album Sweet Potato Pie








Sweet Potato Pie - Brand New Day

Sweet Potato Pie – Brand New Day

Muster day Dude Food

October 27th, 2013 by KM Wall

On Friday, certain housewives were preparing….


1672 – John Josslyn “Cran Berry or Bear Berry…a small trayling plant that grows in Salt Marshes, that are over-grown with moss;…the Berries …red, and as big as a Cherry; some perfectly round, others Oval, all of them hollow, of a sower astringent taste; they are ripe in August and September…They are excellent against the Scurvy…They are also good to allay the fervour of hot Diseases. The Indians and English use them much, boyling them with Sugar for Sauce to eat with their Meat; and it is a delicate Sauce, especially for roasted Mutton: Some make Tarts with them as with Goose Berries. (65-6)


A Cheerrie Tart

Take the fairest Cherries you can get, and picke them cleane from leaves and stalkes; then spread out your coffin as for your Pippin-tart, (….then having rold out the coffin flat, and raysed up a small verdge of an inch, or more high...) and cover the bottome with Suger; then couer the Suger all over with Cherries, then cover those Cherries with Sugar, some sticks of Cinamon, and here and there a Cloue; then lay in more cherries, and so more Suger, Cinnamon and cloves, till the coffin be filled vp; then couvr it, and bake it in all points as the codling and pipping tart, and so serue it; and in the same manner you may make Tarts of Gooseberries, Strawberries, Rasberries, Bilberries, or any other Berrie whatsoever.

-         Markham, Gervase. Covntrey Contentments, or The English Huswife. London. 1623. p 106.

Cranberry tart

Cranberry tart

Cranberry tart, another

Cranberry tart, another

Cranberry tart, yet another

Cranberry tart, yet another



As well as beginning the roasting part of this…..

To make Fillets Gallentine

Take faire Pork, and take off the skin and roste it half ynough, then take it off the spit, and smite it in faire peeces, and caste it in a faire pot: then cut Onions, but not too small, and frie them in faire suet, and put them into the Porke, then take the broth of Beefe or Mutton, and put therto, and set them on the fyre, and put therto powder of Pepper, Saffron, Cloves and Mace, and let them boyle wel together.  Then take faire bread and Vinigar, & steep the bread with some of the same broth, straine it, and some bloud withall, or els Saunders, and colour it with that, and let all boyle together, then cast in a litle Saffron and salte, and then may you serve it in.-

Huswifes Handmaide.  f 43

Gallentine is a sauce made from sopped bread, spices and often blood.

Suet is fat, chiefly from beef, mutton

Saffron is an expensive (still!) spice that is warming and a distinctively yellow color.

Saunders was used to make things a red color.

Or, in other words:

Fillet galletine prep - the pork butt was half roasted and the skin removed; the onions are cut and ready to go

Fillet galletine prep, day 2  – the pork butt was half roasted and the skin removed; the onions are cut and ready to go


chine of pork pepper

bread                    clove

onions                  mace


Roast the chine until half done. Fry onions with a little pork fat.  Chop the pork into pieces and put in a pot with onions, some ground cloves, mace, pepper and salt. Put in enough water just to cover and bring all to a boil, cooking away much of the water.  Before serving, make the gallentine by take slices of bread and soaking them in vinegar with a little salt. Put in a pot or frying pan and add some of the cooking liquid to the bread and vinegar. Bring to a boil.  To serve place pork mixture in a bowl and pour over the gallentine..

 And then this morning…..

To Boyle a Rabbit with Hearbes on the French Fashion.

Fit your Rabbit for the boyling, and seeth it with a little Mutton broth, white Wine, and a peece of Mace: then take Lettuce, Spynage, Parsley, winter Savory, sweet Marioram : all these being pickt, and washt cleane, bruise them with the backe of a Ladle (for the bruising of the Herbes wil make the broth looke very pleasantly greene.) Thicken it with a crust of Manchet, being steeped in some of the broth, and a little sweet Butter therein. Seasono it with verges, and Pepper, and serve it to the Table upon Sippets. Garnish your Dish with Barberyes.

- Murrell, John. A Newe Booke of Cookerie. 1617. London: FW, p. 4.

Rabbit  boyled in the French Fashion

Rabbit boyled in the French Fashion


While someone else was….

To roast a Chine, Rib, Loin, Brisket, or Fillet of Beef.

Draw them with parsely, rosemary, tyme, sweet marjaoram, sage, winter savory, or lemon, or plain without any of them, fresh or salt, as you please; broach it, or spit it, roast it and baste it with butter; a good chine of beef will ask six hours roasting.

For the sauce take strait tops of rosemary, sage-leaves, picked parsley, tyme, and sweet marjoram; and strew them in wine vinegar, and the beef gravy; or otherways with gravy and juyce of oranges and lemons. Sometimes for change in saucers of vinegar and pepper.

-         May, Robert. The Accomplisht Cook. 1685 ed (Prospect Books), p. 113.

although it was porket ribs and not beef..



Ribs on spits

Ribs on spits

Mistress of the sauce for the roasting ribs

Mistress of the sauce for the roasting ribs


and yet another housewife was making….


The best Pancake.

To make the best Pancake, take two or three Egges, and breake them into a dish, and beate them well then adde unto them a pretty quantitie of faire running water, and beate all well together: then put in Cloves, Mace, Cinamon, and a Nutmeg, and season it with Salt: which done, make it thicke as you thinke good with fine Wheat flower: then frie the cakes as thin as may be with sweete Butter, or sweete Seame[1], and make them browne, and so serve them up with Sugar strowed upon them.  There be some which mix Pancakes with new Milke or Creame, but that makes them tough, cloying, and not so crispe, pleasant, and savorie as running water.

- 1618, Markham, Best ed. p. 66

[1] 1530    J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 269/1   Seme for to frye with, seyn de povrceau. 1691    J. Ray Coll. Eng. Words 131   Saime, which we pronounce sometimes Seame. It signifies not only Goose-grease, but in general any kind of Grease or Sewet or Oil, wherewith out Clothiers anoint‥their Wool.

 and then made pancakes even BETTER by….

To make Pancakes so crisp that you may set them upright.

Make a dozen or score of them in a little frying pan, no bigger then a Sawcer, & then boil them in Lard, and they will look as yellow as golde, beside the taste.

- 1615 Murrell, p. 30

There are no photos of the pancakes….but they were there, really!

A simple Salllet iof spinach (picked from Village Gardens!) also disappeared before it could be documented

A simple Salllet of spinach (picked from Village Gardens!) also disappeared before it could be documented




The Littlest Musketeer

The Littlest Musketeer




Sallet Days, Plain and Simple.

October 26th, 2013 by KM Wall

If it’s Saturday, it must be Sallet -day….

Of Sallets, simple and plain
First then to speak of Sallets, there be some simple, some compounded, some only to furnish out the Table, and some both for use and adornation: your simple Sallets are Chibols pilled, washt clean, and half of the green tops cut clean away, and so served on a fruit dish, or Chives, Scallions, Rhaddish roots, boyled Carrets, Skirrets and Turnips, with such like served up simply: Also, all young Lettuce, Cabbage-Lettuce, Purslane, and divers other herbs which may be served simply without any thing but a little Vinegar, Sallet Oyl and Sugar; Onions boyled; and stript from their rind, and served up with Vinegar, Oyl and Pepper, is a good simple Sallet; so is Camphire, Bean-cods, Sparagus, and Cucumbers, served in likewise with Oyl, Venegar and Pepper, with a world of others, too tedious to nominate.

The English Huswife
Containing the inward and outward Vertues which ought to be in a Compleat Woman…
A Work generally approved, and now the Ninth time much Augmented, Purged, and made most profitable and necessary for all men, and the general good of this NATION.
By G. Markham.
LONDON, Printed for Hannah Sawbridge, at the Sign of the Bible on Ludgate Hill, 1683

  • A simple salad is one main thing, with what we now call dressing. A compound  salad had several different elements. A tossed Garden Salad is a modern example of a compound salad construction. A modern Potato Salad is a simple salad, even if it has hard boiled eggs in it, maybe even especially so.
  • for use or adoration means  – they’re for eating or for looking at – we’re just concerned with the eating ones
  • Chibols are a green onion, scallions and chives, are oniony as well, and, like radishes, are often served right at hand

    Annibale Carracci - The Bean eater

    Annibale Carracci – The Bean eater – notice the green onions by his hand – no plate, not a dish – a spoonful of beans and a bite of oniony goodness.

  • Boil your carrots, turnips and skirrets before eating them (or not, maybe having some by the side of your plate to eat a spoonful of beans and then a crunch of carrot)…..but if you have skirrets, they really are better off cooked before eating

    Turnips lurking in a Pilgrim Village garden - ready for a salad

    Turnips lurking in a Pilgrim Village garden – ready for a salad

  • Assorted little leafy green things served with oil, vinegar and salt….Cabbage-lettuce is headed lettuce, as apposed to loose leaves.
  •   Olive oil, wine or cider vinegar and, well, salt. There’s also ‘sallet oil’ in the 17th century. It’s made from rapeseed; rapes being part of the turnip family. We now call that oil canola oil….
    Rapeseed flowers

    Rapeseed flowers

    Canola seeds

    Canola seeds




  • Onions, boiled, bean cods (what we call ‘green beans’ ) boild; Asparagus (not at this time of year, unless you’re living in Australia) and of, course, cucumbers, are all good with oil vinegar, salt and pepper. Perhaps a pinch of sugar. When in doubt, boil. These days, we’re more likely to try raw, but the 17th century thinking was that cooking improved things for mans body by making it more artificial. Artificial was GOOD, because the hand of man was there. Raw was how the horse and cows ate the garden, and they were looking for a little emotional distance from the barnyard animals.
  • Boil, oil; boil, oil; boil, oil.
  • Simple simple simple simple
A Gentleman buys a Turnip

A Gentleman Buys a Turnip – except they look like radishes and he’s a little skeevy. I think he’s looking for more then salad fixin’s…



Jean-Baptiste Chardin - The Turnip Cleaner - 1738 - it's a little later, and a little French, but I'm pretty sure she's about to make some turnip sallett

Jean-Baptiste Chardin – The Turnip Cleaner – 1738 – it’s a little later, and a little French, but I’m pretty sure she’s about to make some turnip sallet

The Feast of Crispian

October 25th, 2013 by KM Wall

If it weren’t for William Shakespeare would we remember the feast of Saint Crispian?

Henry V - from the First Folio of 1623

Henry V – from the First Quarto of 1600



What’s he that wishes so?
My cousin Westmoreland? No, my fair cousin:
If we are mark’d to die, we are enow
To do our country loss; and if to live,
The fewer men, the greater share of honour.
God’s will! I pray thee, wish not one man more.
By Jove, I am not covetous for gold,
Nor care I who doth feed upon my cost;
It yearns me not if men my garments wear;
Such outward things dwell not in my desires:
But if it be a sin to covet honour,
I am the most offending soul alive.
No, faith, my coz, wish not a man from England:
God’s peace! I would not lose so great an honour
As one man more, methinks, would share from me
For the best hope I have. O, do not wish one more!
Rather proclaim it, Westmoreland, through my host,
That he which hath no stomach to this fight,
Let him depart; his passport shall be made
And crowns for convoy put into his purse:
We would not die in that man’s company
That fears his fellowship to die with us.
This day is called the feast of Crispian:
He that outlives this day, and comes safe home,
Will stand a tip-toe when the day is named,
And rouse him at the name of Crispian.
He that shall live this day, and see old age,
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbours,
And say ‘To-morrow is Saint Crispian:’
Then will he strip his sleeve and show his scars.
And say ‘These wounds I had on Crispin’s day.’
Old men forget: yet all shall be forgot,
But he’ll remember with advantages
What feats he did that day: then shall our names.
Familiar in his mouth as household words
Harry the king, Bedford and Exeter,
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloucester,
Be in their flowing cups freshly remember’d.
This story shall the good man teach his son;
And Crispin Crispian shall ne’er go by,
From this day to the ending of the world,
But we in it shall be remember’d;
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers;
For he to-day that sheds his blood with me
Shall be my brother; be he ne’er so vile,
This day shall gentle his condition:
And gentlemen in England now a-bed
Shall think themselves accursed they were not here,
And hold their manhoods cheap whiles any speaks
That fought with us upon Saint Crispin’s day.


Henry V

Kenneth Branagh as Henry V

Kenneth Branaugh as Henry V

Feast means celebration of the of the life of the saint, which isn’t necessarily stopping everything  to eat lots of food….but is often an excuse. Apprentices could and would expect to have the patron saint’s day free from work  and obligation. At one time they might have had a church service or a mass to attend, but in Early Modern England a saints day seemed more a reason to run riot.

Saints Crispian and Crispianian (there are actually 2 saints with similar names )  are the patron saints of shoemakers.

Saints Crispin Crispianian

Saints Crispin Crispianian

and I just so happen to have a recipe for


Not the Charlie Chaplin Gold Rush  eating shoes sort of thing

Charlie Chaplin  The Gold Rush

Charlie Chaplin
The Gold Rush 1925

To make Shoes.

Take a rumpe of beyfe and let it boyle an houre or two, and put therto a greate quantitye of cole wortes, and lette them boyle together thre houres, then putte to them a couple of ſtockedoues, or teales, feaſande, petriche, or ſuche other wylde foules, and let them boyle al together, then ceaſon them wyth ſalte, and ſerue them forthe.
c. 1557. The Proper Newe Booke of Cookerye .

  •  A rump of beef is – a piece of the back end of a cow

    Meat Guide - look at the back end to find a rump....

    Meat Guide – look at the back end to find a rump….

  • Coleworts are a 17th century way of saying ‘collards’, although cabbage could also be used. Yes, so far this is un-corned beef and cabbage……

    Coleworts from a Pilgrim garden

    Coleworts from a Pilgrim garden

  • Adding the wildfowl – stock dove, teal, pheasant or partridge (fesands or petriches – read them out loud and listen to the words) puts this over the top in terms of meaty goodness.
  • Season them with salt.
  • Serve them forth.
  • Wonder what is shoe-ish about this? Is it is because it made from beef and cows also give leather? (Probably NOT) Is it something else so far-fetched for the 21st century mind can’t begin to wrap around it? Is it something soooooo obvious that one of you is smacking your forehead like you coulda had a V-8 and you say,”………..”?
  • Speak up, and thus,  “Be in their flowing cups freshly remember’d.
    This story shall the good man teach his son;”

English Bisket

October 11th, 2013 by KM Wall

All good things start at home, so let’s take a look at the international biskets of 17th century England, by looking at the one that is called


btw, ‘BISKET” is by far and by large the most common spelling of the biscuit in the 17th century. In England. Results may vary by country.



To make English Bisket.

Take eight new layd egges, taking away the whites of foure of them, beate the eight yoalks and the other foure whites in a faire bowle the fourth parte of an houre, then take a pound of fine flower being dryed in an earthen pot closed covered : then take eight ounces of hard sugar beaten fine, and beat them into your egges with the end of a rowling pin, and beat it so very hard for the space of an houre, but by no meanes let it stand still, always beating it, then haue an Ouen as hot as for manchet ready cleane, hauing some saucers of flate plates, or little tine Coffins buttered over with a feather as thinne as you can strike it over, then put into yoru forsaid paste Coliander-seed, sweet Fennel seede, and Caroway seed, of each the fourth part of an ounce, when you have beaten these into your paste, put it into your saucers, and set them presently into the Ouen, and when you see it rise vp and look white, you may take down your lid, and in a quarter of an houre they will be made, then box it vp and keep it all the yeare.

1621. John Murrell. The Delightful daily exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen. Falconwood Press: 1990. p. 3.

A whole lot of beating going on - these need to be light and frothy. If only they had a Kitchen-Aid.

A whole lot of beating going on – these need to be light and frothy. If only they had a Kitchen-Aid.

Coriander seed - we call the leafy part cilantro or even Chinese parsley

Coriander seed – we call the leafy part cilantro or even Chinese parsley



Fennel seed - all together this is going to have a very liquorice taste

Fennel seed – all together this is going to have a very liquorice taste


Our old friend caraway, up close,. You might remember him as Kimmel....

Our old friend caraway, up close. You might remember him as Kimmel….


September 22nd, 2013 by KM Wall

Ever since I asked a group if they knew how to make toast – and they all did – and then I asked if they had learned to make toast from a recipe – and none had – I felt I had made my point of how people learned to cook without cookbooks. Great example.
And then I started finding recipes for toast.
LOTS of toast recipes.

Which doesn’t even include the places where toast shows up as an ingredient – sometimes sops, sometimes sippets, sometimes toast….

A Marrow Toast

Mince colde parboiled Veale, and Suit very fine, and sweet Hearbes each by themselves, and then mingle them together with Sugar, Nutmeg, Sinamon, Rosewater, grated bread, the yolkes of two or three new layd Egges: open the minst meat, and cover it with the marrow. Then put your toast into a Pipkin with the uppermost of some strong broth: let it boyle with large Mace, a Fagot of sweer hearbs, scum them passing cleane, and let them boyle almost drye. Then take Potato-rootes boyld, or Chestnuts, Skirrootes, or Almonds, boyld in white Wine, and for want of Wine you may take Vergis and Sugar.

1615. John Murrell. A New Booke of Cookerie. Falconwood Press: 1989. p. 19.


marrow bones on toast - not quite the 17th century version

Marrow bones on toast – not quite the 17th century version of Marrow Toasts- it’s the centers of the bones that can be taken out and used in the recipe, that’s the marrow


Marrow the vegetable, which is a member of he squash family - also known as a pompion

Marrow the vegetable, which is a member of he squash family – also known as a pompion


Pipkins from Hamberg

Pipkins from Hamberg

Bread crumb trails, part two

September 20th, 2013 by KM Wall

Bread in early modern English resources.

Sources aren’t nearly enough to make an exhibit of daily life. Even if everyday, real-time Plimoth Colony 1627 weren’t the exhibit, all those sources need context. That’s the job of resources.

So,  while  any of the cookbooks that we draw from is a primary source of 17th century English foodways,

BUT since  not a single one of them, not even in copied out commonplace book form, has been found in connection with Plymouth, they are resources for our 162 7 exhibit.

They are the the thing that fills out the pieces of the picture that we have, but they’re done in a mutable way, as if food could be anything else. The Plymouth Colony Primary Sources are the Alpha and the Omega. All resources have to fit within the parameters of the known, and are to be used to flesh out  the Plymouth sources. Not instead of the Plymouth sources, not in contradiction of the Plymouth sources, but to help connect the dots.

Soooooo, I Googled “17th century English Bread images and these are the resources that appeared:

Cover of Elizabeth David's English Bread and Yeast Cookery - very literal, Google!

Cover of Elizabeth David’s English Bread and Yeast Cookery – very literal, Google!and Excellent choice – great resource!!!!!


Street Singer - he's Italian and looks a little 18th century....

Street Singer – he’s Italian and looks a little 18th century….he’s going to be hard to place in 1627 Plimoth….wait, I think he was mislabeled – he might be Parisian….either way, he won’t be in Plimoth Colony anytime soon.




This also appears under the heading 17th century English Breads....this is why resources need some vetting

This also appears under the heading 17th century English Breads….this is why resources need some vetting, sometimes some SERIOUS vetting

I'm not sure what or how this has anything to so with Englsih breads....I rather like the coat, though

I’m not sure why or how or who or what  this has anything to do with English breads….I  like the coat, though. In fact, the entire ensemble is rather fetching.




Simon Luttichuys - who (I think, this is a new one for me) appears to be a painter, born 1620 in London....nice

Simon Luttichuys – who (I think, as this is a new one for me) appears to be a painter, born 1610 in London….nice, now  I need to do more digging about him. The painting is a good resource.

A vopy of a bread recipe - really a formula - from Sir Hugh Plat that was on William Rubel's website - Nice catch

A copy of a bread recipe – really a formula – from Sir Hugh Plat that was on William Rubel’s website – Nice catch, Google!




To make a sallet of all kindes of hearbes

September 19th, 2013 by KM Wall

To make a sallet of all kindes of hearbes
from Thomas Dawson’s The Good Husewifes Jewell, 1597, p 25.

“Take your hearbes and picke them very fine onto faire water, and picke your flowers by themselves, and wash them al cleane, and swing them in a strainer, and when you put them into a dish, mingle them with Cowcumbers or Lemmons payred and sliced, and scrape suger, and put in vineger and Oyle, and throwe the flowers on the toppe of the sallet, and of every sorte of the aforesaide things and garnish the dish about with the foresaid things, and harde Egges boyled and laid about the dish and upon the sallet.”

And now for a modern translation –

A sallet is just another way to say salad.

Hearbes are herbs, which are also of things we now call vegetables – the sorts of things you’d expect to find in a salad. This recipe doesn’t specify any particular herbs, but from other period sources all leafy greens are mentioned: lettuces, spinach, endive, chicory, cabbage, violet leaves, strawberry leaves and borage leaves. Sorrel, salad burnet, parsley, sage, thyme, rosemary and mint leaves could also be added.

Flowers are, well, flowers. Edible flowers include those of calendula (pot marigolds), violets, roses, borage, pinks, and the flowers from sweet herbs such as rosemary, thyme, sage. Not sure if it’s edible? Don’t eat it unless you know it’s not toxic. Don’t guess – be safe!
NOTE: If you are gathering herbs and flowers outside of 1627 make sure that they haven’t been treated with herbicides, pesticides or car emissions.

Cowcumbers are cucumbers. Lemmons are lemons. Suger is sugar; vineger is vinegar (wine or cider) and Oyle is oil (olive).

Aforesaide things (which are mentioned several pages back, so no, you didn’t miss it) include raisins, olives, capers, almonds and currents, figs and dates.

harde Egges boyled are hard boiled eggs.

A version of this salad will be on the table for the Bridale for Jane Cooke and Experience Mitchell Saturday September 21, 2013.


National Apple Dumpling Day

September 18th, 2013 by KM Wall

was September 17th, and apple dumpling were in my dreams. And dumplings in general.

In almost every internet blurb about dumplings or apple dumplings was

Apple dumplings are an ancient British food, described in print from the 17th Century. They were even more popular in the American colonies and Early American period because apples grew well here, dumplings can be made from dried apples as well, and vast boiling pots were the easiest form of cooking to tend and add to in the hearth cooking days.

This is a copy and paste sort of way of tossing some ‘history’ in without doing much heavy lifting. Sigh. and blah blah blah.

Now, since 17th food stuff in print is my bread and butter, as it were,  I know that dumpling recipes are few and far between. There are a few more  dumpling references, indicating that dumplings are the sort of thing that isn’t  likely to find it’s way into a book of cookery, like Capon in the French Fashion or Oxfordshire cakes , because dumplings  are, like their lowly sounding name, common and ordinary fare for the common and ordinary sort.  But there are some references and recipes…..

Very modern (and lovely) apple dumplings - worth having a their own day!

Very modern (and lovely) apple dumplings – worth having a their own day!

I would like to say right here, right now, that I haven’t properly researched dumplings – this is rather random information that a day of looking at apple dumpling images has led me to.

This is the earliest 17th century recipe for dumplings that I found (I haven’t referenced the earlier material). It was in the same section as paste for pies.

To make Paste for Dumplins.

Season your flower with Pepper, Salt, and Yest, let your water be more then warm, then make them up like Manchets, but them be somewhat little, then put them into your water when it boyleth, and let them boil an hour, then butter them.

1653. W. I.  A True Gentlewomans Delight. Falconwood Press: 1991. p. 43.

Essentially, it sounds like a plain dumplings that would be great with chicken….. . Easy, filling, and but no apples.

Chicken and dumplings - or dumplins.....

Chicken and dumplings – or dumplins…..

But, wait, there’s another dumpling recipe, and  it’s a little fancier…..


To make a Dumplin.

Take a pint of Cream and boyl it with a blade of Mace;  then take twelve spoonfuls of grated bread, five spoonfuls of flower;  then take six yolks of Eggs and five whites;  beat them very well with two spoonfuls of Rosewater and as much fair water, season it with sugar, Nutmeg and salt, mingle them altogether with the Cream, tye it in a cloth, and when your water boyles, put it in and boyl it one hour and half, and when it is enough, serve it in with Rosewater, butter and sugar.

1664. Hannah Wolley. The Cooks Guide. p. 34-5.

Still no apples, but this is richer, nicer, sweeter…..and it’s a dumplin in tied up in a cloth. Dumplin is a word we shouldn’t have shucked.

So what’s the difference between this dumplin and a bag pudding?


To boil a Pudding which is uncommonly good.

Take a pond and [a] half of Wheat-flour, three-quarter pond of Currants washed clean, a half pond Kidney-suet, cut it very small, 3 Eggs, on and half Nutmegs, grated fine, a little Salt, mix it with a little sweet Milk so dry that one kneads it like a Bread and tie it in a clean cloth rather close and throw it into a pot with boiling water and let it boil for two hours, then it is done.

Peter Rose, trans. The Sensible Cook. p.79.

This pudding IS uncommonly good. Because The Sensible Cook is a translation of a Dutch cookbook, among our Pilgrim selves we sometimes refer to this a a Dutch Pudding.  But the difference between the dumplin and the bag pudding……too close to call.

If you’d like to see this pudding up close and in person, join us this Saturday afternoon. This pudding is one of the dishes scheduled to be on the table for the Bride-ale feasting.  I should have photos after that to share.

But apples, where are the apples?


Another apple dumpling

Another apple dumpling


To make Apple pufs.

Take a Pomewater or any other Apple that is not hard, or harsh in taste: mince it small with a dozen or twenty Razins of the Sunne: wet the Apples in two Egges, beat them all together with the back of a Knife or Spoone. Season them with Nutmeg, Rosewater, Sugar, and Ginger: drop them into a Frying-pan with a Spoone, fry them like Egges, wring iuyce of an Orenge, or Lemmon, and serve them.

1615. John Murrell. A New Booke of Cookerie. Falconwood press: 1989. p. 21.

Not a dumpling, but very good and easy…..rosewater is a great enhancer of apple flavor, and the squeeze of lemon or orange juice (iuyce)  – genius.


Apple Dumplng Gang- the Movie

Apple Dumpling Gang- the Movie – looking for apple dumplings throughout history????



Just another Manchet Monday

September 16th, 2013 by KM Wall

Manchets are regulated by the Books of Assizes, which means the price is set, but the size varies according to the price of wheat.That is, when they are made and sold by members of the Baker’s Guild in bake shops.

But manchets are also are being made in individual households. Some of the recipes for manchets are attributed to specific ladies. So there is a range of what manchet can mean when it’s made  outside of the Bakers Shops.

The making of manchets after my Ladie Graies use.
Take two peckes of fine flower, which must be twise boulted, if you wil haue your manchet verie faire: The lay it in a place where you doe use to lay dowe for your bread, and make a litle hole in it, and take a quart of faire water blood warme, and put in that water as much leaven as a crab, or a pretie big apple, and as much white salt as will fill an Egshell, and all to breake your leuen in the water, and put into your flower halfe a pinte of good Ale yest, and so stir this liquor among a litle of your flower, so that you must make it but thin at the first meeting, and then cover it with flower, and if it be in the winter, ye must keepe it verie warm, and iin summer it shall not need so much heate, for in the Winter it will not rise without warmeth. Thus let it lie two howers and a halfe: then at the second opening take more liquor as ye thinke will serue to wet al the flower. Then put in a pinte and a halfe of good yest, and so all to breake it in short pieces, after yee have well laboured it, and wrought it fiue or sixe tymes, so that yee bee sure it is throughlie mingled together, so continue labouring it, till it come to a smooth paste, and be well ware at the second opening that yee put not in too much liquor sodenlie, for then it will run, and if ye take a litle it will be stiffe, and after the second working it must lie a good quarter of hower, and keep it warme: then take it up to the moulding board, and with as much speede as is possible to be made, mould it up, and set it into the Oven, of one pecke of flower ye may make ten caste of Manchets faire and good.”
- 1594. The good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kichin. London fasc ed. pp. 51-2.



  • Great details in this version, especially of measurements
  • Two pecks is half a bushel – this is still making quite a bit of bread
  • Twice bolting – or sifting – would make the flour fair because more of the darker germ and husk would have been removed. The whiter the flour, the fairer the bread.
  • dowe = dough
  • leaven as much as a crab – which I believe in this case is a crab apple, because apple are the next measure.
  • European crabapples

    European crabapples

  • as much salt as will fill an egg shell – that’s still fairly salt-free compared to modern breads
  • Eggshell


  • Notice that the leaven seems to be something somewhat solid (perhaps a piece of sourdough) and there is also ale-yeast,which has a liquid measure
  • The section about keeping it covered in Winter so it will rise make this sound like a 17th century ‘quick’ bread – you want a fast rising, no long slow rise – and therefore a very different flavour profile.
  • More yeast, and lots of kneading. This is going to make a firm crumb – none of this big, irregular holes of the modern artisan  – this is bread that has been touched – a lot – by human hands.
  • Biscuit brake

    Biscuit brake -another tool to help really,really knead your bread. Or you can have your apprentices tread the dough with their bare feet….

  • The moulding board is not a nasty, mildewy place, but rather where the loaves are moulded -or shaped . Lady Graie is have you go tout suit on this; no second rising, get them into shape and pop them into the oven.
  • I’m still unclear how the math works out for year. If one peck of flour  makes 10 caste of Manchets fair and good, the two pecks here should make 20 caste, so how many loaves in a caste?
  • More mysteries…
This is definitely a white bread...but is it a manchet - or whatever the Dutch equivalent would be

This is definitely a white bread…but is it a manchet ? – or whatever the Dutch equivalent would be – noticed how the loaf kissed the one beside it in the oven


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